Table 1

Characteristics and cardiometabolic outcomes at 7 years of age between the offspring of mothers with normal glucose tolerance and mothers with GDM

Offspring
Mothers with NGT (n = 794)Mothers with GDM (n = 132)P value
Anthropometry
 Children’s age (years), median (interquartile range)7.0 (6.7–7.2)6.9 (6.6–7.2)0.03
 BMI (kg/m2)*15.0 ± 2.315.3 ± 2.10.04
 BMI percentile42.6 ± 31.150.9 ± 32.00.01
 Obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile)67 (8.4)9 (6.8)0.53
 Overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile)
  Overall121 (15.3)30 (22.7)0.03
  Boys73 (17.2)13 (22.8)0.30
  Girls48 (13.0)17 (22.7)0.03
 Waist-to-hip ratio*0.84 ± 0.050.84 ± 0.040.64
 Sum of skinfold thickness (mm)*
  Overall35.8 ± 17.438.7 ± 15.70.07
  Boys35.2 ± 18.235.6 ± 15.40.71
  Girls36.4 ± 16.541.0 ± 15.50.03
Glycemia and insulin
 PG (mmol/L)
  Fasting4.57 ± 0.354.64 ± 0.490.12
  15 min7.03 ± 1.167.20 ± 1.300.14
  30 min7.54 ± 1.497.99 ± 1.580.002
  60 min5.87 ± 1.516.30 ± 1.660.004
  120 min5.29 ± 0.975.39 ± 0.960.26
 AUC(G)
  Overall732 ± 118768 ± 1210.002
  Boys731 ± 118769 ± 1150.03
  Girls734 ± 119766 ± 1270.04
Children’s glycemic status
 IFG and/or IGT13 (1.7)5 (3.9)0.04
 DM0 (0)1 (0.8)0.04
 Fasting plasma insulin (mIU/L)4.07 ± 5.333.77 ± 3.570.53
 Fasting C-peptide (µg/L)0.38 ± 0.430.32 ± 0.370.14
 Matsuda ISI16.2 ± 8.915.0 ± 8.30.14
 HOMA-BCF77.6 ± 72.871.4 ± 65.20.38
 Insulinogenic index at 30 min81.0 ± 94.267.8 ± 65.00.05
 Oral disposition index7.98 ± 9.436.62 ± 5.950.04
Lipid profile
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.47 ± 0.744.52 ± 0.680.41
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.66 ± 0.351.65 ± 0.310.73
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.47 ± 0.642.53 ± 0.610.33
 Triglyceride (mmol/L)0.74 ± 0.330.78 ± 0.340.24
 Dyslipidemia63 (8.2)11 (8.4)0.94
BP (mmHg)
 SBP*102 ± 8.9104 ± 8.70.01
 DBP*62 ± 7.963 ± 8.10.06
 SBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile60 ± 2466 ± 220.01
 DBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile60 ± 2264 ± 220.02
 Hypertension (BP ≥95th percentile)63 (8.0)11 (8.3)0.89
 Prehypertension (BP 90th to <95th percentile)50 (6.3)11 (8.3)0.51
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. BCF, β-cell function; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • *Between-group comparison by ANCOVA after adjustment for age and/or sex as appropriate.

  • †χ2 test based on the rate of abnormal glucose tolerance.

  • ‡Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/L or LDL cholesterol ≥3.4 mmol/L.