Table 2

Assumed direct health benefits and costs based on systematic reviews (base-case and sensitivity scenarios)

Absolute changesRelative changes
Base caseLowHighBase caseLowHigh
Direct health benefits
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)−5.4−2.9−8−2.58%−1.38%−3.81%
 HDL (mg/dL)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)−2.1−1.1−3−1.66%−0.89%−2.42%
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)−1.3−0.7−1.9−1.78%−0.96%−2.59%
 Diabetes relative riskN/AN/AN/A−54%−43%−65%
Per person costs
 Base case$653
 Group-based interventions$425
  • N/A, not applicable.

  • †The upper and lower bounds of direct health benefits are determined by using the confidence bound reported by the USPSTF. The diabetes relative risk reduction is assumed to be ±20% for the high/low cases.

  • ‡Base case represents an intervention with a mixture of group and individual sessions.

  • *Screening is composed of a medical visit with a lipid panel and a glucose panel accounted for using the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule 2014 (28).