Table 2

Unadjusted and adjusted ORs for associations between maternal glycemic level during pregnancy and offsprings’ cardiometabolic characteristics at 7 years of age

Maternal fasting PGMaternal 1-h PGMaternal 2-h PGGDM
UnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjusted
Abnormal glucose tolerance*
 Overall1.86 (1.24–2.77)1.85 (1.20–2.86)1.81 (1.15–2.85)1.95 (1.18–3.22)1.76 (1.15–2.69)2.00 (1.21–3.31)2.90 (1.08–7.77)3.08 (1.04–9.13)
 Boys1.71 (1.02–2.89)1.68 (0.95–2.98)1.79 (1.02–3.13)1.82 (0.95–3.47)1.86 (1.05–3.31)1.82 (0.92–3.58)4.17 (1.21–14.38)3.89 (0.96–15.81)
 Girls2.12 (1.12–4.02)2.56 (1.16–5.68) 1.96 (0.89–4.30)2.47 (0.98–6.18)1.75 (0.91–3.37)2.04 (0.98–4.26)1.95 (0.37–10.28)2.34 (0.41–13.50)
Overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile)§
 Overall1.15 (0.97–1.37)1.11 (0.92–1.34)1.28 (1.07–1.52)1.26 (1.04–1.53)1.24 (1.04–1.47)1.25 (1.03–1.51)1.63 (1.04–2.56)1.59 (0.97–2.59)
 Boys0.98 (0.78–1.25)0.93 (0.72–1.20)1.29 (1.02–1.64)1.25 (0.97–1.62)1.16 (0.91–1.49)1.09 (0.84–1.43)1.42 (0.73–2.77)1.25 (0.60–2.61)
 Girls1.38 (1.07–1.78)1.43 (1.07–1.90)1.27 (0.98–1.64)1.33 (0.99–1.79)1.33 (1.04–1.69)1.44 (1.09–1.89)1.96 (1.06–3.64)2.16 (1.09–4.27)
Adiposity (sum of skinfold ≥90th percentile)‖
 Overall1.30 (1.06–1.60)1.33 (1.05–1.69)1.36 (1.10–1.68)1.36 (1.08–1.73)1.23 (0.99–1.51)1.28 (1.00–1.64)1.16 (0.65–2.09)1.02 (0.52–1.98)
 Boys1.10 (0.82–1.46)1.12 (0.80–1.56)1.20 (0.90–1.60)1.14 (0.82–1.57)1.04 (0.77–1.41)1.01 (0.71–1.45)0.76 (0.29–1.99)0.45 (0.13–1.57)
 Girls1.60 (1.18–2.17)1.79 (1.24–2.57)1.60 (1.16–2.19)1.76 (1.21–2.56)1.45 (1.08–1.95)1.55 (1.09–2.20)1.68 (0.78–3.61)1.63 (0.70–3.78)
Prehypertensive or hypertensive (BP ≥90th percentile)
 Overall1.11 (0.92–1.33)1.07 (0.89–1.30)1.25 (1.04–1.50)1.22 (1.01–1.48)1.19 (1.00–1.43)1.17 (0.96–1.41)1.20 (0.73–1.97)1.15 (0.69–1.92)
 Boys1.11 (0.86–1.43)1.06 (0.81–1.38)1.20 (0.93–1.55)1.16 (0.89–1.53)1.18 (0.90–1.55)1.16 (0.87–1.54)0.97 (0.44–2.14)0.99 (0.44–2.22)
 Girls1.11 (0.86–1.43)1.08 (0.83–1.42)1.30 (1.01–1.68)1.28 (0.97–1.70)1.20 (0.94–1.53)1.18 (0.91–1.53)1.39 (0.73–2.67)1.29 (0.65–2.54)
  • Data are OR (95% CI). ORs were for an increase of 1 SD in maternal glucose level (0.3 mmol/L for fasting PG, 1.6 mmol/L for 1-h PG, 1.3 mmol/L for 2-h PG). Corresponding ORs were then calculated for the selected sex. All ORs were adjusted for maternal age (at expected date of confinement), parity (at the index pregnancy), BMI before pregnancy, and children’s exercise level, in addition to

  • *current maternal and paternal DM status, children’s age, and/or sex, as appropriate;

  • §current maternal and paternal DM status;

  • ‖current maternal and paternal DM status and children’s age, height, and/or sex, as appropriate; or

  • ¶current maternal hypertensive status.

  • P value between 0.01 and < 0.05.

  • P < 0.01.