Table 3

The association of offspring diagnosed with abnormal glucose tolerance with maternal glucose levels at pregnancy during OGTT and diagnosed with GDM at pregnancy

Children’s abnormal glucose tolerance after adjustment for parental and children’s characteristics* and the following parameter
Fasting PG1-h PG2-h PGGDM
Adiposity at birth†1.90 (1.15–3.15)2.02 (1.17–3.49)2.25 (1.30–3.88)4.13 (1.33–12.8)
LGA at birth‡1.84 (1.17–2.87)1.92 (1.15–3.19)1.99 (1.20–3.30)3.00 (1.01–8.87)
Adiposity at 7 years§1.80 (1.17–2.78)1.91 (1.16–3.14)1.97 (1.19–3.27)3.13 (1.05–9.30)
Overweight/obese at 7 years‖1.85 (1.20–2.85)1.90 (1.15–3.14)1.96 (1.18–3.25)2.99 (1.00–8.88)
  • Data are OR (95% CI). LGA, large for gestational age.

  • *ORs adjusted for maternal age (at expected date of confinement), parity (at index pregnancy), BMI before pregnancy, current maternal and paternal DM status, children’s exercise level, children’s age, and sex, in addition to †sum of skinfold thickness ≥90th percentile at birth; ‡birth weight ≥90th percentile; §sum of skinfold thickness ≥90th percentile at 7 years of age; ‖BMI ≥85th percentile at 7 years of age, for an increase of 1 SD in maternal glucose level (0.3 mmol/L for fasting PG, 1.6 mmol/L for 1-h PG, 1.3 mmol/L for 2-h PG).