Table 1

Characteristics of the study population at baseline and cognitive test scores at baseline and at follow-up according to the baseline tertiles of HOMA-IR

Tertile of HOMA-IRPtrend
1st2nd3rd
n (%)1,246 (33.7)1,221 (33.0)1,228 (33.2)
Female784 (62.9)677 (55.4)589 (48.0)<0.0001
Age (years)47.0 ± 11.348.7 ± 11.852.1 ± 12.4<0.0001
Years of education12.5 ± 3.912.4 ± 4.011.2 ± 3.8<0.0001
Fasting time (h:min)8:419:129:42<0.0001
HOMA-IR0.83 ± 0.231.55 ± 0.243.56 ± 2.21<0.0001
DM21 (0.0)10 (0.8)77 (6.3)<0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.1 ± 0.45.3 ± 0.45.8 ± 1.1<0.0001
Fasting insulin (mU/L)3.7 ± 1.06.6 ± 1.113.6 ± 6.2<0.0001
HbA1c % (mmol/mol)5.1 ± 0.3 (32 ± 3.3)5.2 ± 0.3 (33 ± 3.3)5.5 ± 0.6 (37 ± 6.6)<0.0001
hs-CRP (mg/L)0.91 ± 1.431.18 ± 1.621.83 ± 2.07<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125 ± 18131 ± 19139 ± 20<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 3.126.3 ± 3.629.7 ± 4.6<0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.51 ± 0.371.36 ± 0.351.19 ± 0.31<0.0001
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)4.25 ± 1.054.54 ± 1.054.91 ± 1.18<0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.17 ± 0.561.37 ± 0.701.96 ± 1.20<0.0001
APOEε4*391 (33.4)368 (31.8)361 (31.6)0.73
BDI score6.2 ± 6.46.3 ± 6.57.1 ± 6.70.04
Alcohol consumption >24/16 doses/week (for men/women)71 (5.7)79 (6.5)85 (6.9)0.84
Current smoking277 (22.3)226 (18.6)196 (16.0)0.009
Physical activity score3.7 ± 1.43.7 ± 1.43.6 ± 1.40.0002
Verbal fluency in 200025.9 ± 7.025.2 ± 7.023.9 ± 6.9<0.0001
Word-list learning in 200022.1 ± 3.721.8 ± 4.020.9 ± 4.00.02
Word-list delayed recall in 20007.6 ± 1.87.5 ± 1.87.2 ± 1.80.52
Verbal fluency in 201125.4 ± 7.324.5 ± 7.622.7 ± 7.1<0.0001
Word-list learning in 201121.8 ± 4.321.5 ± 4.420.3 ± 4.60.02
Word-list delayed recall in 20117.5 ± 2.17.4 ± 2.16.9 ± 2.20.39
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. Ptrend values for age- and sex-adjusted differences among the tertiles of HOMA-IR. The cutoff for the second tertile is 1.16 and for the third tertile 2.01.

  • *APOEε4 genotype is considered positive for subjects with one or two ε4 alleles.

  • †The maximum score for word-list learning is 30 points.

  • ‡The maximum score for word-list delayed recall is 10 points.