Table 1

Participant characteristics by study arm

CGM group (n = 102)Control group (n = 53)
Age (years)46 ± 1451 ± 11
Diabetes duration (years)20 ± 1324 ± 14
Female sex46 (45)23 (43)
Race/ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic88 (86)42 (79)
 Black, non-Hispanic6 (6)3 (6)
 Hispanic or Latino5 (5)8 (15)
 More than one race2 (2)0 (0)
 Unknown/not reported1 (<1)0 (0)
Highest education*
 Less than bachelor’s degree44 (46)22 (43)
 Bachelor’s degree43 (44)19 (37)
 Postbachelor’s degree10 (10)10 (20)
HbA1c (%)8.6 ± 0.78.6 ± 0.6
Number of SMBG tests/day (self-report)3.9 ± 1.34.1 ± 1.6
≥1 severe hypoglycemic events in previous 12 months7 (7)9 (17)
CGM use in the past17 (17)9 (17)
WHO-571.3 ± 14.769.1 ± 14.9
EQ-5D-5L0.90 ± 0.110.89 ± 0.11
Diabetes distress (DDS)
 Total1.8 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.6
 Regimen distress2.1 ± 0.92.1 ± 1.0
 Emotional burden2.0 ± 0.91.9 ± 0.8
 Interpersonal distress1.5 ± 0.81.5 ± 0.7
 Physician distress1.2 ± 0.61.1 ± 0.3
Hypoglycemic confidence (HCS)3.3 ± 0.63.2 ± 0.6
Hypoglycemia fear (worry subscale of HFS-II)15.8 ± 12.317.3 ± 13.2
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%). One hundred fifty-five participants completed the study from baseline to 24-week follow-up.

  • *Data for education level were available for 97 of 102 participants in the CGM group and 51 of 53 participants in the SMBG group.