Table 2

Effect of empagliflozin on renal solute handling in patients with T2D

BaselineAcuteChronicP1P2
Fasting
 β-HB excretion rate (µmol · min−1)0.08 (0.10)0.15 (0.10)0.31 (0.43)<0.0001<0.0001
 β-HB clearance rate (mL · min−1)0.56 (0.68)0.84 (0.46)1.08 (1.06)0.020.0003
 β-HB fractional excretion (%)0.56 (0.57)0.75 (0.55)0.95 (0.82)0.01<0.0001
 Lactate excretion rate (µmol · min−1)0.06 (0.06)0.20 (0.16)0.28 (0.25)<0.0001<0.0001
 Lactate clearance rate (mL · min−1)0.05 (0.05)0.16 (0.13)0.25 (0.23)<0.0001<0.0001
 Lactate fractional excretion (%)0.04 (0.03)0.14 (0.12)0.24 (0.20)<0.0001<0.0001
 Na+ excretion rate (mEq · min−1)0.45 (0.27)0.55 (0.25)0.41 (0.25)0.00050.02
 Na+ excretion (mEq · 180 min)82 (48)100 (45)74 (45)0.00050.02
Meal
 β-HB excretion rate (µmol · min−1)0.08 (0.10)0.15 (0.13)0.22 (0.32)b<0.0001<0.0001
 β-HB clearance rate (mL · min−1)0.87 (0.92)1.03 (0.69)c1.33 (0.73)c0.030.003
 β-HB fractional excretion (%)0.66 (0.67)0.78 (0.44)1.04 (0.77)0.0080.0008
 Lactate excretion rate (µmol · min−1)0.10 (0.17)a0.38 (0.43)a0.42 (0.34)a<0.0001<0.0001
 Lactate clearance rate (mL · min−1)0.07 (0.12)a0.26 (0.25)a0.29 (0.30)b<0.0001<0.0001
 Lactate fractional excretion (%)0.05 (0.07)c0.22 (0.18)c0.29 (0.23)<0.0001<0.0001
 Na+ excretion rate (mEq · min−1)0.27 (0.22)a0.45 (0.20)a0.36 (0.16)<0.00010.001
 Na+ excretion (mEq · 300 min)80 (67)136 (60)a108 (48)a<0.00010.0001
  • Data are median (interquartile range).

  • P1, acute vs. baseline P value; P2, chronic vs. baseline P value (Wilcoxon signed rank test).

  • aP < 0.0001;

  • bP < 0.001;

  • cP < 0.05, meal vs. fasting (Wilcoxon signed rank test).