Table 2

Age-, sex-, and education-adjusted associations of baseline IR, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, and hs-CRP values with cognitive test scores at follow-up and with change in cognitive test scores from 2000 to 2011

Verbal fluencyWord-list learningWord-list delayed recall
βSEβSEβSE
Cognitive test score, 2011†
 HOMA-IR−0.81***0.17−0.140.090.010.05
 Glucose−2.40*1.02−0.910.56−0.060.27
 Insulin−0.86***0.19−0.140.100.010.05
 HbA1c−2.701.50−0.860.81−0.060.39
 hs-CRP−0.120.09−0.040.05−0.010.61
Change in cognition, 2000–2011
 HOMA-IR0.41**0.140.090.080.0050.04
 Glucose1.370.80.910.490.370.24
 Insulin0.43**0.150.070.09−0.0030.04
 HbA1c1.291.220.670.710.210.34
 hs-CRP0.070.070.030.04−0.0070.02
  • N = 3,695, except for the analysis of hs-CRP and cognition, where n = 3,590. Estimates (β) and SEs are derived from linear regression analysis and adjusted for age, sex, and years of formal education. The analyses for change in cognition are adjusted even for baseline cognitive test scores. Logarithmic transformation is used for HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, and hs-CRP to achieve a normal distribution.

  • *P < 0.05,

  • **P < 0.01,

  • ***P < 0.001. †Note that a negative estimate for cognitive test score in 2011 indicates a lower cognitive test score for those with higher levels of IR, fasting glucose, etc.

  • ‡A positive estimate for the change in cognition from 2000 to 2011 indicates a greater decline in cognitive test score for those with higher levels of IR, fasting glucose, etc.