Table 3

Multivariate correlations of baseline IR, fasting glucose and insulin levels, HbA1c, and hs-CRP values with cognitive test scores at follow-up and with change in cognitive test scores from 2000 to 2011

Verbal fluencyWord-list learningWord-list delayed recall
βSEβSEβSE
Cognitive test score, 2011
 HOMA-IR−0.86***0.23−0.070.130.050.06
 Glucose−1.931.25−0.590.680.080.33
 Insulin−0.91***0.25−0.050.130.060.37
 HbA1c−2.011.890.181.020.340.50
 hs-CRP−0.110.10−0.010.050.010.03
Change in cognition, 2000–2011
 HOMA-IR0.55**0.190.070.110.0020.05
 Glucose1.261.030.630.590.290.29
 Insulin0.58**0.200.050.66−0.010.06
 HbA1c1.201.55−0.050.900.110.44
 hs-CRP0.120.080.020.05−0.0010.02
  • N = 3,695, except for the analysis of hs-CRP and cognition, where n = 3,590. Estimates (β) and SEs are derived from linear regression analysis and adjusted for age, sex, years of education, APOEε4 status, DM2, BMI, systolic blood pressure, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The analyses for change in cognition are adjusted even for baseline cognitive test scores. Logarithmic transformation is used for HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c, hs-CRP, and triglycerides to achieve a normal distribution.

  • **P < 0.01,

  • ***P < 0.001.

  • †Note that a negative estimate for cognitive test score in 2011 indicates a lower cognitive test score for those with higher levels of IR, fasting glucose, etc.

  • ‡A positive estimate for the change in cognition from 2000 to 2011 indicates a greater decline in cognitive test score for those with higher levels of IR, fasting glucose, etc.