Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics of 338,908 Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes stratified by calendar period of enrollment

TotalPeriod of enrollment
2000–20032004–20062007–20092010–2012
Number338,90833,14360,06797,879147,819
Demographics
 Age (years)62.8 ± 12.260.9 ± 12.262.9 ± 12.263.0 ± 12.263.2 ± 12.2
 Male (%)48.747.346.949.449.3
 Ex-/current smoker (%)30.230.530.230.929.9
 Family history of diabetes (%)44.542.938.843.947.8
 Duration of diabetes (years)4.0 (8.0)6.0 (8.0)5.0 (8.0)3.0 (8.0)3.0 (7.0)
Metabolic control
 BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 4.125.4 ± 3.925.6 ± 4.025.8 ± 4.125.9 ± 4.1
 Waist circumference (cm)
  Male90.0 (12.0)89.0 (13.0)90.0 (12.0)90.0 (12.0)91.0 (12.0)
  Female87.0 (14.0)85.0 (13.0)86.0 (13.0)87.0 (13.0)88.0 (13.0)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)137.5 ± 19.1140.1 ± 21.5138.0 ± 19.8137.5 ± 19.0136.6 ± 18.3
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.0 ± 10.776.5 ± 10.775.3 ± 10.576.0 ± 10.576.2 ± 10.8
 HbA1c (% [mmol/mol])7.6 ± 1.67.8 ± 1.77.8 ± 1.67.6 ± 1.77.3 ± 1.5
(60 ± 12.6)(62 ± 13.5)(62 ± 12.7)(60 ± 13.4)(56 ± 11.5)
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)7.8 ± 2.68.4 ± 2.98.2 ± 2.77.9 ± 2.67.4 ± 2.4
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.0 ± 0.93.2 ± 0.93.1 ± 0.93.1 ± 0.92.9 ± 0.9
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.4 (1.0)1.5 (1.2)1.4 (1.1)1.5 (1.1)1.3 (0.9)
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.4
 Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)76.5 ± 22.872.9 ± 2.173.7 ± 21.976.1 ± 21.678.8 ± 22.0
 Obesity (%)53.650.751.453.855.0
 Hypertension (%)88.187.787.888.288.3
 Dyslipidemia (%)84.186.584.284.883.2
Diabetes-related complications
 Albuminuria (%)34.239.137.632.533.7
  Microalbuminuria26.029.528.525.625.4
  Macroalbuminuria8.29.69.16.98.3
 Chronic kidney disease (%)18.120.221.118.016.4
 ESRD (%)0.50.60.60.50.4
 Diabetic retinopathy (%)29.730.421.926.033.5
 History of coronary heart disease (%)5.86.95.94.96.1
 History of stroke (%)4.95.95.04.15.1
Treatment
 Noninsulin antidiabetic drugs (%)62.753.860.462.565.7
 Metformin (%)50.037.742.048.457.1
 Sulfonylureas (%)41.143.147.843.636.3
 Thiazolidinediones (%)0.40.20.50.50.3
 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (%)0.30.00.00.00.7
 Insulin (%)5.09.07.14.33.7
 Antihypertensive drugs (%)59.142.552.156.767.4
 RAS inhibitors (%)28.322.224.626.732.2
 Statins (%)16.38.88.68.826.1
 Antiplatelet drugs (%)13.310.312.512.814.7
Target attainment
 HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) (%)42.932.933.141.350.0
 Blood pressure ≤130/80 mmHg (%)29.324.728.129.530.7
 LDL cholesterol <2.0 mmol/L (%)11.98.28.710.014.4
 LDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L (%)33.125.826.629.338.1
 At least one target (%)40.036.237.941.440.7
 At least two targets (%)18.410.713.216.723.3
 All three targets (%)3.81.52.12.95.5
  • At least one target: attained at least one of HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), blood pressure ≤130/80 mmHg, or LDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L; at least two targets: attained at least two of HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), blood pressure ≤130/80 mmHg, or LDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L; and all three targets: attained HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), blood pressure ≤130/80 mmHg, and LDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L.

  • P < 0.05 for comparison of all parameters between assessment periods.