Table 3

Odds ratios and 95% CI for associations with SMBG frequency, in-target HbA1c, general QOL, and resilient outcomes

SMBG frequency (≥4 checks/day) n = 469In-target HbA1c (<58.0 mmol/mol, 7.5%) n = 421General QOL (≥7) n = 470All 3 resilient outcomes n = 420
Age0.79** (0.69, 0.91)1.05 (0.93, 1.19)1.18* (1.02, 1.36)1.05 (0.91, 1.21)
Sex (male)0.57* (0.35, 0.97)1.63* (1.04, 2.56)2.08** (1.21, 3.55)1.59 (0.95, 2.67)
Diabetes duration (years)1.00 (0.95, 1.07)0.86** (0.81, 0.91)0.96 (0.90, 1.02)0.85** (0.79, 0.91)
Insulin regimen (insulin pump)1.51 (0.92, 2.48)1.52 (0.97, 2.39)1.74* (1.04, 2.91)2.42** (1.40, 4.19)
Diabetes-related family conflicta1.07 (0.84, 1.38)1.32* (1.05, 1.67)1.55** (1.19, 2.01)1.31 (0.99, 1.73)
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-7 ≥10)0.62 (0.31, 1.24)0.96 (0.48, 1.95)0.33** (0.16, 0.65)0.47 (0.17, 1.34)
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-A ≥10)0.73 (0.37, 1.45)0.58 (0.28, 1.19)0.17** (0.08, 0.33)0.32* (0.12, 0.94)
DSTAR-Teen scoresa1.10** (1.07, 1.14)1.04** (1.01, 1.08)1.10** (1.06, 1.14)1.10** (1.05, 1.14)
  • Data set in bold indicate significant associations with each outcome.

  • SMBG measured as average checks per day, categorized as <4 checks/day (reference category) vs. ≥4 checks/day. Sex reference category = female. Insulin regimen reference category = injections. Anxiety reference category = <10 in GAD-7. Depression reference category = <10 in PHQ-A.

  • *P < 0.05.

  • **P < 0.01.

  • aHigher scores on the measure indicate less family conflict about diabetes.