Table 2

Diabetes regimen and self-management behavior characteristics associated with D-HRQOL in multivariate linear regression

Explanatory variable interpretation8–12 years13–18 years19–25 yearsAllAdjusted means (SE)*Estimate (95% CI)*P value*
Insulin regimen0.100
 n1,7152,8461,3265,887
 Basal bolus regimen (reference)66.667.872.668.565.6 (0.7)0.0
 Pump only25.624.719.523.866.5 (0.8)0.8 (−0.1, 1.7)0.081
 Any other insulin regimen7.87.57.87.764.8 (0.9)−0.8 (−2.3, 0.6)0.270
Methods used to measure food intake for diabetes management<0.001
 n1,6732,7601,2705,703
 Only avoids sugars/added sugars (reference)111091063.2 (0.9)0.0
 Carbohydrate counting4440424167.1 (0.7)3.9 (2.4, 5.5)<0.001
 Carbohydrate exchanges/weighing/measuring151581366.3 (0.8)3.1 (1.5, 4.7)<0.001
 Estimation based on experience3136423666.0 (0.7)2.9 (1.4, 4.3)<0.001
On average in a 1-month period, about how many times per day is the participant checking his/her blood glucose with a blood glucose meter?<0.001
 n1,7082,8221,3165,846
 ≥0 to ≤2 (reference)1323402463.3 (0.8)0.0
 >2 to ≤43244414065.7 (0.7)2.3 (1.3, 3.4)<0.001
 >4 to ≤51815111567.1 (0.8)3.8 (2.5, 5.0)<0.001
 >5381882266.5 (0.8)3.2 (2.0, 4.5)<0.001
Diabetic ketoacidosis<0.001
 n1,7152,8451,3265,886
 No (reference)9494949467.3 (0.6)0.0
 Yes666664.0 (0.9)−3.2 (−4.8, −1.7)<0.001
Severe hypoglycemia resulting in seizure or loss of consciousness0.086
 n1,7142,8451,3265,885
 No (reference)9898969766.6 (0.5)0.0
 Yes324364.7 (1.2)−1.9 (−4.1, 0.3)0.086
Number of days when the participant spent at least 30 min doing any physical activities or exercise per week<0.001
 n1,6872,8121,3015,800
 0–2 (reference)3338443864.5 (0.7)0.0
 3–76762566266.7 (0.7)2.2 (1.5, 2.9)<0.001
  • Data are n or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Boldface P values indicate overall factor is significantly related to HRQOL score.

  • *Based on N = 5,460.