Table 1

Descriptive data for C-peptide–positive and –negative patients

ParameterC-peptide positiveC-peptide negativeP values
Patients (n, %)46 (41)67 (59)
Male sex (n, %)28 (61)35 (52)a0.71
Age (years)43.0 ± 2.537.6 ± 1.8b0.077
Age at onset (years)15.5 ± 1.813.2 ± 1.0c0.075
Disease duration (years)28.0 ± 2.524.5 ± 1.5c0.54
BMI (kg/m2)25.3 ± 0.525.0 ± 0.5c0.62
C-peptide (pmol/L)28.6 ± 15.00 ± 0c<0.0001
IL-35 (ng/mL)20.3 ± 2.59.7 ± 1.8c0.0004*
IFN-γ (pg/mL)8.8 ± 0.99.8 ± 1.4c0.43
IL-10 (pg/mL)0.38 ± 0.050.41 ± 0.05c0.19
IL-12 (pg/mL)122 ± 12119 ± 8c0.84
IL-15 (pg/mL)2.3 ± 0.172.60 ± 0.08c0.018*
IL-17 (pg/mL)1.4 ± 0.161.5 ± 0.2c0.89
IL-1β (pg/mL)0.06 ± 0.020.02 ± 0.008c0.078
IL-2 (pg/mL)0.1 ± 0.010.5 ± 0.3c0.47
IL-4 (pg/mL)0.02 ± 0.0040.02 ± 0.003c0.32
IL-5 (pg/mL)0.3 ± 0.030.4 ± 0.04c0.51
IL-6 (pg/mL)0.6 ± 0.050.8 ± 0.1c0.53
TNF-α (pg/mL)2.5 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.1c0.92
DR3, n/n7/147/14a1.0
DR4, n/n14/148/14a0.016
DQ3, n/n14/148/14a0.016
Creatinine (µmol/L)79.8 ± 4.176.7 ± 2.9c0.46
Glucose (mmol/L)11.2 ± 0.710.5 ± 0.6b0.45
HbA1c (mmol/mol, %)64.3 ± 1.9 (8.0 ± 0.2)61.5 ± 1.4 (7.8 ± 0.2)c0.21
GAD (IE/mL)62 ± 1464 ± 12c0.75
Number of GAD positive (n, %)26 (57)37 (55)a1.0
IA2 (kE/L)48 ± 1423 ± 7c0.25
Number of IA2 positive (n, %)21 (46)20 (30)a0.12
Total insulin doses (units/24 h)50.7 ± 3.646.3 ± 2.2c0.71
Insulin doses adjusted for bodyweight (units/kg/24 h)0.66 ± 0.040.62 ± 0.027c0.70
  • All blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. All data are given as means ± SEM unless otherwise indicated. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. For the cytokine data (12 different parameters), the Kruskal-Wallis test of Bonferroni was applied to correct for multiple testing.

  • †Analyzed for 14 patients in each group.

  • aFisher exact test.

  • bTwo-tailed Student t test.

  • cTwo-tailed nonparametric Student t test (Mann-Whitney) based on ranks.

  • *Bonferroni corrected P value for IL-35 = 0.0019 and for IL-15 >0.99. IFN-γ, interferon-γ; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.