Table 1

Characteristics of participants according to diabetes status

VariableTotal Normoglycemia IFGNewly diagnosed diabetes Prevalent diabetes
N = 12,815,006n = 9,403,894n = 2,505,235n = 546,232n = 359,645
Age, years44.4 ± 14.242.5 ± 13.947.7 ± 13.852.5 ± 13.356.8 ± 12.1
BMI, kg/m223.5 ± 3.223.2 ± 3.124.1 ± 3.224.7 ± 3.324.5 ± 3.2
SBP, mmHg124.1 ± 17.3122.3 ± 16.6127.9 ± 17.7133.1 ± 19.0131.5 ± 18.8
FSG, mg/dL94.9 ± 31.084.8 ± 8.6108.0 ± 6.6133.1 ± 19.0131.5 ± 18.8
Total cholesterol, mg/dL194.2 ± 49.0191.2 ± 44.8201.1 ± 56.6208.5 ± 64.8201.2 ± 58.3
Sex
 Men7,292,064 (56.9)5,155,811 (54.8)367,232 (67.2)1,567,046 (62.6)201,975 (56.2)
 Women5,522,942 (43.1)4,248,083 (45.2)179,000 (32.8)938,189 (37.4)157,670 (43.8)
Smoking status
 Current smoker3,653,334 (28.5)2,626,812 (27.9)182,435 (33.4)756,268 (30.2)87,819 (24.2)
 Former smoker1,099,436 (8.6)759,271 (8.1)52,186 (9.6)249,647 (10.0)38,332 (10.7)
 Never smoker7,425,581 (57.9)5,527,669 (58.8)283,945 (52.0)1,389,340 (55.5)224,627 (62.5)
 Missing636,655 (5.0)490,142 (5.2)27,666 (5.1)109,980 (4.4)8,867 (26.8)
Alcohol consumption, frequency (days)
 ≤1/month6,102,884 (47.6)4,490,767 (47.8)252,841 (46.3)1,142,796 (45.6)216,480 (60.2)
 2/month–2/week4,980,284 (38.9)3,743,434 (39.8)185,155 (33.9)955,218 (38.1)96,477 (26.8)
 3–7/week1,237,846 (9.7)791,794 (8.4)84,861 (15.5)321,116 (12.8)40,075 (11.1)
 Missing493,992 (3.9)377,899 (4.0)23,375 (4.3)86,105 (3.4)6,613 (1.8)
Physical activity
 ≥1 times/week5,158,300 (40.3)3,744,925 (39.8)1,032,589 (38.1)211,600 (33.9)169,186 (26.8)
Self-reported comorbidity
 Cancer, heart disease, stroke 202,464 (1.6)120,449 (1.3)46,594 (1.9)16,676 (3.1)18,745 (5.2)
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%).

  • FSG, fasting serum glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • P values, which were calculated by χ2 tests and one-way ANOVA between diabetes status groups, were <0.001 for each variable.

  • To convert cholesterol from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0259.

  • To convert glucose from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555.