Table 1

Factors associated with D-HRQOL in multivariate linear regression

Explanatory variable interpretation8–12years13–18 years19–25 yearsAllAdjusted means (SE)*Estimate (95% CI)*P value*
Patient characteristics
 Sex<0.001
  n1,7152,8461,3265,887
  Male (reference)5152515170.2 (0.3)0.0
  Female4948494966.2 (0.3)−4.0 (−4.7, −3.4)<0.001
 BMI (kg/m2)0.040
  n1,7112,8421,3205,873
  Underweight/normal (reference)7174717368.7 (0.3)0.0
  Overweight1615241768.7 (0.4)0.0 (−0.9, 0.9)0.942
  Obese131161067.3 (0.6)−1.4 (−2.6, −0.3)0.012
 Age at diagnosis (years)0.010
  n1,7152,8461,3265,887
  ≥10 (reference)4320162668.0 (0.4)0.0
  <64933253669.0 (0.4)0.9 (0.0, 1.8)0.050
  ≥6 to <10847593967.6 (0.4)−0.4 (−1.2, 0.4)0.344
 HbA1c (%)<0.001
  n1,7142,8461,3255,885
  <7.5 (reference)3229333171.5 (0.4)0.0
  ≥7.5 to <9.04236373868.4 (0.4)−3.2 (−4.0, −2.4)<0.001
  ≥9.02635303164.8 (0.4)−6.8 (−7.7, −5.9)<0.001
Family characteristics
 Person living with patient0.029
  n1,7122,8441,3245,880
  Living with both parents (reference)8582677966.9 (0.3)0.0
  Only mother/only father1315121365.7 (0.5)−1.2 (−2.3, −0.2)0.018
  Alone + other3422865.9 (0.7)−1.1 (−2.5, 0.3)0.127
 What is the highest level of education either of the patient’s parents/guardians completed?<0.001
  n1,6732,7911,2745,738
  Illiterate/primary (reference)1617211765.2 (0.6)0.0
  Secondary4244434366.0 (0.4)0.7 (−0.3, 1.7)0.165
  University/higher4240374067.3 (0.4)2.1 (1.1, 3.2)<0.001
 Conflict for check and interpret blood glucose levels over the past month<0.001
  n1,7062,8371,3145,857
  Almost never (reference)5448675467.8 (0.5)0.0
  Sometimes + almost always4652334664.5 (0.4)−3.2 (−4.3, −2.2)<0.001
 Conflict for select and give insulin doses over the past month0.254
  n1,7062,8371,3145,857
  Almost never (reference)6056736166.5 (0.4)0.0
  Sometimes + almost always4044273965.9 (0.5)−0.6 (−1.7, 0.5)0.254
 Has the patient or his/her family members cut down or stopped working because of diabetes?<0.001
  n1,7042,8321,3155,851
  No (reference)8289918867.5 (0.3)0.0
  Yes181191264.8 (0.6)−2.7 (−3.7, −1.6)<0.001
  • Data are n or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Boldface P values indicate overall factor is significantly related to HRQOL score.

  • *Based on N = 5,741 (5,882) for patient (family) characteristics analysis, respectively.