Table 1

Demographic characteristics of randomized patients

DSME gameCivics gameTotal
Participants in trial227229456
Sex (%)
 Female12 (5.3)16 (7.0)28 (6.1)
 Male215 (94.7)213 (93.0)428 (93.9)
Age (mean, SD)59.2 (10.3)59.9 (9.4)59.5 (9.9)
HbA1c (mean mmol/mol; SD)75 (14)74 (13)75 (14)
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g; median, IQR)8.5 (40.4)8.7 (22.5)8.6 (32.5)
Diabetes drug PPR (mean, SD)0.82 (0.21)0.83 (0.19)0.82 (0.20)
No. PPR <80% (%)75 (35.4)75 (34.4)150 (34.9)
Charlson morbidity index score (mean, SD), 1 year prior2.3 (1.6)2.2 (1.5)2.3 (1.6)
Diabetes Complications Severity Scale (mean, SD), 1 year prior1.2 (1.5)1.2 (1.4)1.2 (1.4)
Elixhauser comorbidity index score (mean, SD), 1 year prior4.6 (2.3)4.2 (2.1)4.4 (2.2)
DES score (mean, SD)31.1 (6.2)31.2 (6.1)31.1 (6.1)
PAID scale score (mean, SD)30.0 (18.7)29.9 (17.8)30.0 (18.2)
Geographic region (%)
 VISN1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont66 (29.1)58 (25.3)124 (27.2)
 VISN3: New Jersey, New York34 (15.0)23 (10.0)57 (12.5)
 VISN4: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia41 (18.1)46 (20.1)87 (19.1)
 VISN6: North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia48 (21.2)59 (25.8)107 (23.5)
 VISN7: Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina38 (16.7)43 (18.8)81 (17.8)
  • Demographic characteristics were similar between arms. IQR, interquartile range; VISN, Veterans Integrated Service Network administrative regions within the Veterans Health Administration.