Table 1

Characteristics of HLA-eligible TEDDY children followed to age 6 years

IA negative (N = 7,914)Any IA (N = 589)IAA only (N = 252)GADA only (N = 226)IA-2A only (N = 9)Multiple IA (N = 102)Type 1 diabetes (N = 172)
Sex
 Female3,928 (49.6)264 (44.8)108 (42.9)105 (46.5)2 (22.2)49 (48.0)85 (49.4)
 Male3,986 (50.4)325 (55.2)144 (57.1)121 (53.5)7 (77.8)53 (52.0)87 (50.6)
Family history
 GP7,112 (89.9)465 (79.0)196 (77.8)183 (81.0)7 (77.8)79 (77.5)118 (68.6)
 FDR mother307 (3.9)31 (5.3)10 (4.0)12 (5.3)1 (11.1)8 (7.8)12 (7.0)
 FDR father384 (4.9)65 (11.0)29 (11.5)25 (11.1)0 (0)11 (10.8)31 (18.0)
 FDR sibling111 (1.4)28 (4.8)17 (6.8)6 (2.7)1 (11.1)4 (3.9)11 (6.4)
HLA
 DR3/31,706 (21.6)76 (12.9)17 (6.8)54 (23.9)1 (11.1)4 (3.9)18 (10.5)
 DR3/X22 (0.3)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (0.6)
 DR3/43,019 (38.2)298 (50.6)125 (49.6)111 (49.1)3 (33.3)59 (57.8)97 (56.4)
 DR4/X1,609 (20.3)112 (19.0)66 (26.2)27 (12.0)2 (22.2)17 (16.7)34 (19.8)
 DR4/41,558 (19.7)103 (17.5)44 (17.5)34 (15.0)3 (33.3)22 (21.6)22 (12.8)
Country
 U.S.3,428 (43.3)203 (34.5)73 (29.0)98 (43.4)2 (22.2)30 (29.4)49 (28.5)
 Finland1,658 (21.0)144 (24.5)78 (31.0)40 (17.7)2 (22.2)24 (23.5)54 (31.4)
 Germany525 (6.6)48 (8.2)20 (7.9)10 (4.4)1 (11.1)17 (16.7)25 (14.5)
 Sweden2,303 (29.1)194 (32.9)81 (32.1)78 (34.5)4 (44.4)31 (30.4)44 (25.6)
Started probiotics
 No or age >365 days6,290 (78.5)453 (76.9)191 (75.8)182 (80.5)7 (77.8)73 (71.6)124 (72.1)
 Yes, age 28–365 days1,077 (13.6)100 (17.0)46 (18.3)33 (14.6)1 (1.1)20 (19.6)33 (19.2)
 Yes, age <28 days547 (6.9)36 (6.1)15 (6.0)11 (4.9)1 (11.1)9 (8.8)15 (8.7)
Maternal IA
 No7,702 (97.3)568 (96.4)243 (96.4)220 (97.4)8 (88.9)97 (95.1)162 (94.2)
 Yes212 (2.7)21 (3.6)9 (3.6)6 (2.7)1 (11.1)5 (4.9)10 (5.8)
Weight at 12 months, mean z score (SD)−0.13 (1.02)0.00 (1.05)−0.06 (1.05)0.11 (1.09)0.03 (1.08)−0.11 (0.96)−0.06 (1.05)
Child conditions before first clinical visit (age 3 months)
 Upper resp. (yes)1,857 (23.5)144 (24.5)68 (27.0)47 (20.8)3 (33.3)26 (26.0)50 (29.2)
 Lower resp. (yes)970 (12.3)66 (11.2)27 (10.7)31 (13.9)2 (22.2)6 (5.9)16 (9.4)
 Diarrhea (yes)740 (9.4)52 (8.9)26 (10.4)16 (7.1)0 (0)10 (9.8)14 (8.1)
 Rash (yes)1,804 (22.8)126 (21.4)55 (21.8)42 (18.7)2 (22.2)27 (26.5)27 (15.7)
rs689 (INS)
 No3,721 (53.7)381 (65.6)182 (73.4)120 (53.6)8 (88.9)71 (71.0)116 (72.1)
 Yes3,206 (46.3)200 (34.4)66 (26.6)104 (46.4)1 (11.1)29 (29.0)45 (28.0)
rs231775 (CTLA4)
 No2,176 (31.4)174 (30.0)80 (32.3)56 (25.0)3 (33.3)35 (35.0)46 (28.6)
 Yes4,751 (68.6)407 (70.1)168 (67.7)168 (75.0)6 (66.7)65 (65.0)115 (71.4)
rs2476601 (PTPN22)
 No5,550 (80.1)401 (69.1)168 (67.7)159 (71.3)5 (55.6)69 (69.0)103 (63.9)
 Yes1,376 (19.9)179 (30.9)80 (32.3)64 (28.7)4 (44.4)31 (31.0)58 (26.0)
rs2816316 (RGS1)
 No4,271 (66.9)360 (66.5)160 (68.7)140 (67.3)5 (62.5)55 (59.8)107 (69.9)
 Yes2,110 (33.1)181 (33.5)73 (31.3)68 (32.7)3 (37.5)37 (40.2)46 (30.1)
rs10517086
 No3,281 (51.4)259 (47.9)111 (47.6)106 (51.0)3 (37.5)39 (42.4)58 (37.9)
 Yes3,100 (48.6)282 (52.1)122 (52.4)102 (49.0)5 (62.5)53 (57.6)95 (62.1)
rs4948088 (COBL)
 No5,801 (90.9)508 (93.9)221 (94.9)192 (92.3)8 (100)87 (94.6)144 (94.1)
 Yes580 (9.1)33 (6.1)12 (5.1)16 (7.7)0 (0)5 (5.4)9 (5.9)
rs2292239 (ERBB3)
 No2,964 (46.5)200 (37.0)87 (37.3)71 (34.1)5 (62.5)37 (40.2)50 (32.7)
 Yes3,417 (53.6)341 (63.0)146 (62.7)137 (65.9)3 (37.5)55 (59.8)103 (67.3)
rs3184504 (SH2B3)
 No2,022 (31.7)129 (23.8)62 (26.6)41 (19.7)1 (12.5)25 (27.2)40 (26.1)
 Yes4,359 (68.3)412 (76.2)171 (73.4)167 (80.3)7 (87.5)67 (72.8)113 (73.9)
rs12708716 (CLEC16A)
 No2,788 (43.8)263 (48.6)105 (45.1)104 (50.0)4 (50.0)50 (54.4)74 (48.4)
 Yes3,577 (56.2)278 (51.4)128 (54.9)104 (50.0)4 (50.0)42 (45.7)79 (51.6)
  • Data are N (%) unless otherwise indicated. Lower resp., lower-respiratory infection; Upper resp., upper-respiratory infection.