Table 3

Conditions to exclude before making the diagnosis of resistant hypertension

Secondary hypertension (136)*Hypertension elicited or exacerbated by other drugs or diseases
Pseudoresistance (136,137)Apparent hypertension due to lack of medication adherence, poor blood pressure measurement technique
Masked hypertension (137)Clinic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg; daytime blood pressure ≥135 or ≥85 mmHg
White-coat hypertension (137)Clinic blood pressure ≥140 or ≥90 mmHg; daytime blood pressure <135/85 mmHg
  • * Secondary causes of hypertension include endocrine issues, renal arterial disease, excessive edema in advanced kidney disease, and hormones, such as testosterone. Drugs that increase blood pressure include NSAIDs, decongestants, and some illicit substances.