Table 2

Outcomes by adherence of included studies in the meta-analysis

ReferenceAdjustmentAdjusted estimatesCVD, events/participants, n (%)All-cause mortality, events/participants, n (%)All-cause hospitalization, events/participants, n (%)
Good adherencePoor adherenceGood adherencePoor adherenceGood adherencePoor adherence
Gibson et al., 2010 (32)Amputation, MI, cerebrovascular disease, neuropathy, PAD, renal events, retinopathyGood adherence: OR MI 0.29 (95% CI 0.22–0.84), P = 0.014; OR cerebrovascular disease 0.83 (95% CI 0.55–1.24), P = 0.6796,918/72,067 (9.6)*3,478/24,667 (14.1)*
Zhu et al., 2015 (39)Age, sex, race, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, renal diseasePoor adherence: OR mortality 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.31), P = NS25/2,269 (1.1)294/21,798 (1.3)
Hong and King, 2011 (33)No adjusted estimates providedN/A377/2,269 (16.6)3,945/21,798 (18.1)
Ho et al., 2006 (38)Age, sex, hypertension, MI, CAD, PAD, cerebrovascular disease, CCF, renal insufficiency, retinopathyPoor adherence: OR mortality 1.39 (95% CI 1.07–1.82), P = NS86/11,800 (0.7)276/28,282 (1.0)
Encinosa et al., 2010 (34)No adjusted estimates providedN/A1,456/11,800 (13.1)3,714/28,282 (13.1)
Jha et al., 2012 (35)No adjusted estimates providedN/A363/9,076 (4.0)145/2,456 (5.9)
Lau and Nau, 2004 (36)Age, sex, number of OHA therapies, Charlson comorbidity index, prior hospitalizationPoor adherence: OR hospitalization 2.53 (95% CI 1.38–4.64), P = NS1,743/9,076 (19.2)570/2,456 (23.2)
White et al., 2004 (37)Age, sex, Charlson comorbidity indexPoor adherence: OR hospitalization 1.31 (95% CI 1.24–1.38)847/6,322 (13.4)784/5,724 (13.7)
  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CCF, congestive cardiac failure; MI, myocardial infarction; OR, odds ratio; PAD, peripheral artery disease.

  • *Cerebrovascular disease and acute myocardial infarction.