Table 1

Characteristics of users of pancreas-nonspecific, long-acting sulfonylureas (glyburide and glimepiride) and pancreas-specific, short-acting sulfonylureas (gliclazide, glipizide, and tolbutamide) in patients with type 2 diabetes

CharacteristicsTreatment group
Pancreas-nonspecific, long-acting sulfonylureasPancreas-specific, short-acting sulfonylureas
Total1,86315,741
Age (years), mean (SD)66.8 (12.2)68.4 (12.5)
Male, n (%)1,093 (58.7)9,025 (57.3)
Diabetes duration (years), mean (SD)1.7 (3.6)1.6 (3.4)
Alcohol-related disorders, n (%)41 (2.2)468 (3.0)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Ever930 (49.9)8,175 (51.9)
 Never783 (42.0)6,474 (41.1)
 Unknown150 (8.1)1,092 (6.9)
BMI, n (%)
 <25 kg/m2507 (27.2)4,602 (29.2)
 25–29 kg/m2665 (35.7)5,563 (35.3)
 ≥30.0 kg/m2475 (25.5)3,682 (23.4)
 Unknown216 (11.6)1,894 (12.0)
HbA1c (%), n (%)
 ≤7 (≤53 mmol/mol)191 (10.3)1,411 (9.0)
 7.1–8.0 (54–64 mmol/mol)269 (14.4)2,296 (14.6)
 >8 (>64 mmol/mol)609 (32.7)5,186 (32.9)
 Unknown794 (42.6)6,848 (43.5)
Medical history, n (%)
 Congestive heart failure154 (8.3)1,789 (11.4)
 Arterial hypertension1,031 (55.3)8,848 (56.2)
 Thyroid disease136 (7.3)1,390 (8.8)
 Cerebrovascular disease197 (10.6)1,811 (11.5)
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter191 (10.3)2,121 (13.5)
 Cancer223 (12.0)2,505 (15.9)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease273 (14.7)2,306 (14.7)
 Coronary artery disease489 (26.3)4,681 (29.7)
 Hyperlipidemia321 (17.2)3,113 (19.8)
 Previous coronary revascularization70 (3.8)734 (4.7)
 Previous myocardial infarction175 (9.4)1,664 (10.6)
 Angina pectoris266 (14.3)2,266 (14.4)
 Anemia261 (14.0)2,935 (18.7)
Drugs, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors525 (28.2)4,596 (29.2)
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers99 (5.3)1,117 (7.1)
 β-Blockers468 (25.1)3,931 (25.0)
 Calcium-channel blockers392 (21.0)3,675 (23.4)
 Thiazide diuretics381 (20.5)3,251 (20.7)
 Loop diuretics322 (17.3)3,298 (21.0)
 Other diuretics79 (4.2)897 (5.7)
 Digoxin149 (8.0)1,495 (9.5)
 Statins545 (29.3)5,335 (33.9)
 Fibrates28 (1.5)210 (1.3)
 Clopidogrel29 (1.6)516 (3.3)
 Warfarin107 (5.7)1,199 (7.6)
 Acetylsalicylic acid561 (30.1)4,994 (31.7)
 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs243 (13.0)1,946 (12.4)
 Opioid analgesics542 (29.1)4,788 (30.4)
 Acetaminophen600 (32.2)5,444 (34.6)
 Nitrates222 (11.9)2,076 (13.2)
Diabetic complications, n (%)
 Neuropathy52 (2.8)624 (4.0)
 Peripheral vascular disease106 (5.7)981 (6.2)
 Nephropathy119 (6.4)1,944 (12.4)
 Retinopathy167 (9.0)1,509 (9.6)
Number of unique nonantidiabetic drugs, mean (SD)7.1 (5.7)8.1 (6.3)
 0, n (%)128 (6.9)828 (5.3)
 1, n (%)110 (5.9)890 (5.7)
 2, n (%)149 (8.0)1,090 (6.9)
 3, n (%)175 (9.4)1,243 (7.9)
 ≥4, n (%)1,301 (69.8)11,690 (74.3)
Number of hospitalization episodes of care, mean (SD)0.3 (0.7)0.5 (1.2)
 0, n (%)1,515 (81.3)11,095 (70.5)
 1, n (%)239 (12.8)3,010 (19.1)
 2, n (%)66 (3.5)973 (6.2)
 3, n (%)24 (1.3)359 (2.3)
 ≥4, n (%)19 (1.0)304 (1.9)