Table 1

Baseline characteristics at the time of diagnosis of diabetes

Diabetes with no prior pancreatic diseaseDiabetes following pancreatic disease
Type 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesAllDiabetes following acute pancreatitisDiabetes following chronic pancreatic disease
n = 354n = 30,876N = 559n = 361n = 198
Age (years)
 <2029 (8.2)17 (0.1)2 (0.4)1 (0.3)1 (0.5)
 20–2996 (27.1)226 (0.7)17 (3.0)8 (2.2)9 (4.5)
 30–39103 (29.1)1,284 (4.2)38 (6.8)22 (6.1)16 (8.1)
 40–4965 (18.4)4,517 (14.6)85 (15.2)52 (14.4)33 (16.7)
 50–5936 (10.2)7,546 (24.4)147 (26.3)90 (24.9)57 (28.8)
 60–6918 (5.1)8,727 (28.3)123 (22.0)80 (22.2)43 (21.7)
 70–795 (1.4)6,141 (19.9)94 (16.8)64 (17.7)30 (15.2)
 ≥802 (0.6)2,418 (7.8)53 (9.5)44 (12.2)9 (4.5)
Sex
 Female129 (36.4)13,490 (43.7)230 (41.1)157 (43.5)73 (36.9)
 Male225 (63.6)17,386 (56.3)329 (58.9)204 (56.5)125 (63.1)
Ethnicity
 Asian9 (2.5)2,148 (7.0)21 (3.8)16 (4.4)5 (2.5)
 Black7 (2.0)921 (3.0)8 (1.4)4 (1.1)4 (2.0)
 Mixed1 (0.3)229 (0.7)2 (0.4)2 (0.6)0 (0.0)
 Other1 (0.3)230 (0.7)3 (0.5)2 (0.6)1 (0.5)
 White244 (68.9)22,248 (72.1)430 (76.9)276 (76.5)154 (77.8)
 Unknown92 (26.0)5,100 (16.5)95 (17.0)61 (16.9)34 (17.2)
IMD score
 First quintile82 (23.2)7,298 (23.6)126 (22.5)88 (24.4)38 (19.2)
 Second quintile86 (24.3)6,778 (22.0)109 (19.5)70 (19.4)39 (19.7)
 Third quintile62 (17.5)5,382 (17.4)87 (15.6)52 (14.4)35 (17.7)
 Fourth quintile51 (14.4)5,636 (18.3)109 (19.5)71 (19.7)38 (19.2)
 Fifth quintile69 (19.5)5,595 (18.1)125 (22.4)78 (21.6)47 (23.7)
 Unknown4 (1.1)187 (0.6)3 (0.5)2 (0.6)1 (0.5)
Alcohol consumption*
 None61 (17.2)8,634 (28.0)145 (25.9)105 (29.1)40 (20.2)
 Safe105 (29.7)6,755 (21.9)107 (19.1)71 (19.7)36 (18.2)
 Hazardous112 (31.6)12,510 (40.5)177 (31.7)121 (33.5)56 (28.3)
 Alcoholic21 (5.9)1,425 (4.6)103 (18.4)49 (13.6)54 (27.3)
 Unknown55 (15.5)1,552 (5.0)27 (4.8)15 (4.2)12 (6.1)
Smoking status
 Never smoked122 (34.5)7,280 (23.6)100 (17.9)60 (16.6)40 (20.2)
 Former smoker138 (39.0)19,310 (62.5)318 (56.9)217 (60.1)101 (51.0)
 Current smoker94 (26.6)4,224 (13.7)140 (25.0)84 (23.3)56 (28.3)
 Unknown0 (0.0)62 (0.2)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.5)
BMI (kg/m2)
 <18.511 (3.1)59 (0.2)9 (1.6)0 (0.0)9 (4.5)
 ≥18.5–24.9107 (30.2)2,242 (7.3)84 (15.0)40 (11.1)44 (22.2)
 ≥25–29.947 (13.3)7,451 (24.1)130 (23.3)89 (24.7)41 (20.7)
 ≥30.035 (9.9)14,886 (48.2)196 (35.1)151 (41.8)45 (22.7)
 Unknown154 (43.5)6,238 (20.2)140 (25.0)81 (22.4)59 (29.8)
HbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
 <7.0 [<53]3 (0.8)10,500 (34.0)170 (30.4)114 (31.6)56 (28.3)
 ≥7.0–7.9 [≥53–63]8 (2.3)5,740 (18.6)94 (16.8)64 (17.7)30 (15.2)
 ≥8.0–8.9 [≥64–74]4 (1.1)2,030 (6.6)32 (5.7)26 (7.2)6 (3.0)
 ≥9.0–9.9 [≥75–85]15 (4.2)1,344 (4.4)31 (5.5)17 (4.7)14 (7.1)
 ≥10.0–10.9 [≥86–96]20 (5.6)1,186 (3.8)23 (4.1)17 (4.7)6 (3.0)
 ≥11.0–11.9 [≥97–107]33 (9.3)1,018 (3.3)24 (4.3)12 (3.3)12 (6.1)
 ≥12.0 [≥108]85 (24.0)1,381 (4.5)43 (7.7)23 (6.4)20 (10.1)
 Unknown186 (52.5)7,677 (24.9)142 (25.4)88 (24.4)54 (27.3)
  • Data are presented as n (%). Groups are split into type 1 diabetes with no prior history of pancreatic disease, type 2 diabetes with no prior history of pancreatic disease, and diabetes that developed following pancreatic disease. Diabetes following pancreatic disease is subdivided into diabetes following acute pancreatitis and diabetes following any chronic pancreatic disease.

  • IMD, index of multiple deprivation.

  • *Alcohol consumption was divided into four categories based on Read code data: “none” (current nondrinker), “safe” (<14 units per week or only occasional consumption), “hazardous” (>14 units per week or excess consumption), or “alcoholic” (alcohol-related disease complications or alcoholism treatment).