Table 1

Metabolic and cardiac MRI values obtained in control subjects with NGT and subjects with T2D before and after pioglitazone treatment

NGT controlT2D baselineT2D after pioglitazone
Sex, n
 Male91010
 Female322
Age (years)47.7 ± 10.550.7 ± 9.151.3 ± 9.1
BMI (kg/m2)28.4 ± 4.430.8 ± 4.331.3 ± 4.2
Body fat (%)29.3 ± 8.631.9 ± 5.733.4 ± 6.1
HbA1c (%)5.5 ± 0.46.7 ± 1.3***5.6 ± 0.8‡
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)93 ± 6149 ± 48***112 ± 23
Fasting FFAs (mmol/L)0.32 ± 0.10.52 ± 0.17***0.30 ± 0.14‡
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)55.7 ± 9.838.8 ± 11.9***41.5 ± 9.7
Triacylglycerol (mg/dL)128 ± 94265 ± 155***153 ± 74‡
Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity8.7 ± 4.82.8 ± 1.9***5.8 ± 3.4‡
Glucose infusion rate (mg/kg · min)7.5 ± 2.83.4 ± 1.3***5.8 ± 2.1‡
MGU (μmol/min · g)0.38 ± 0.140.24 ± 0.14*0.42 ± 0.13‡
Myocardial perfusion (mL/min · g)0.83 ± 0.200.95 ± 0.161.10 ± 0.25
Systolic function
 Resting heart rate (beats/min)63.3 ± 6.878.1 ± 10.5**71.3 ± 11.3
 Cardiac index (L/min · m2)2.85 ± 0.322.90 ± 0.702.91 ± 0.74
 EF (%)64.2 ± 4.760.7 ± 6.365.6 ± 6.9
 Stroke volume/BSA (mL/m2)42.7 ± 5.037.7 ± 7.3*41.7 ± 8.5
 Peak LV ejection rate/BSA (mL/s · m2)226 ± 36224 ± 52255 ± 54
 Myocardial mass/BSA (g/m2)60.2 ± 9.464.1 ± 8.561.4 ± 8.6
Diastolic function
 Transmitral E/A flow ratio1.48 ± 0.371.04 ± 0.28**1.25 ± 0.38‡
 ESV/BSA (mL/m2)26.4 ± 9.724.3 ± 5.421.2 ± 5.3
 EDV/BSA (mL/m2)69.1 ± 10.361.9 ± 9.1*62.9 ± 9.3
 PLVFR/BSA (mL/s · m2)196 ± 33171 ± 52*212 ± 54‡
  • Data are mean ± SD.

  • *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.005 determined by unpaired t test for T2D baseline vs. NGT control.

  • P < 0.05 and ‡P < 0.01 for T2D baseline vs. T2D after pioglitazone (determined by paired t test).