Table 2

Difference in mean scores and effect sizes for psychological and clinical variables by severity of DD

Total sampleSeverity of DDDifferenceEffect size (d)P
None-to-mildModerateHigh
N (%)537 (100)247 (46)98 (18)192 (36)
DD77 ± 3049 ± 1280 ± 6111 ± 15<0.001
Depressive symptoms6.8 ± 6.03.5 ± 3.57.1 ± 4.310.8 ± 6.6+3.6*0.92<0.001
+3.80.66<0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.1 ± 1.57.7 ± 1.38.0 ± 1.48.7 ± 1.6+0.2*0.220.36
+0.80.470.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)65 ± 1661 ± 1463 ± 1572 ± 17+3*0.220.36
+80.470.001
SMBG4.8 ± 2.15.2 ± 2.05.0 ± 1.84.2 ± 2.1−0.2*0.110.72
−0.80.410.002
  • Data are mean ± SD or as indicated.

  • ‡None-to-mild (PAID-T <70), moderate (PAID-T 70–90), high (PAID-T >90).

  • *Difference between “none-to-mild” and “moderate.”

  • †Difference between “moderate” and “high.”