Table 1

Baseline characteristics stratified by SGLT2 inhibitor user and nonuser status in the Mount Sinai and Geisinger propensity-matched cohorts

Mount Sinai cohortGeisinger cohort
User (n = 372)Nonuser (n = 372)P1User (n = 1,207)Nonuser (n = 1,207)P2
Demographics
 Age, years63.0 (56–70)63.0 (54–72)0.8558.0 (51–66)58.2 (51–66)0.71
 Male205 (55.1)194 (52.2)0.42641 (53.1)641 (53.1)1.00
Race<0.010.34
 White152 (40.9)124 (33.3)1,172 (97.1)1,182 (97.9)
 Black68 (18.3)110 (29.6)15 (1.2)13 (1.1)
 Other152 (40.9)138 (37.1)20 (1.7)12 (1.0)
Comorbidities
 Smoker136 (9.7)93 (25.0)<0.01666 (55.2)666 (55.2)1.00
 Heart failure61 (16.4)63 (16.9)0.8425 (2.1)30 (2.5)0.50
 Coronary artery disease130 (35.0)116 (31.2)0.28148 (12.3)148 (12.3)1.00
 Hypertension335 (90.1)339 (91.1)0.62788 (65.3)788 (65.3)1.00
 Stroke19 (5.1)28 (7.5)0.1828 (2.3)42 (3.5)0.09
Physiologic variables
 BMI, kg/m231.6 (28.1–36.7)30.8 (26.7–36.0)0.1134.6 (31–39)34.3 (30–38)0.19
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg131.2 (123.4–140.6)130.8 (121.9–141.0)0.66128.0 (118–136)127.7 (118–138)0.43
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg74.8 (70.0–80.0)73.4 (67.6–79.0)0.0874.7 (68–80)74.0 (68–80)0.04
Laboratory variables
 HbA1c, %8.0 (7.3–9.0)7.5 (6.7–8.8)<0.018.2 (7.4–8.8)7.7 (6.7–8.3)<0.01
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL160.3 (141.0–188.0)163.0 (136.5–196.7)0.40172.1 (147–186)168.6 (144–185)0.03
 Hemoglobin, g/dL13.2 (12.1–14.2)12.2 (10.8–13.4)<0.0114.1 (13.8–14.4)13.9 (13.3–14.6)<0.01
 eGFR,2 mL/min/1.73 m263.7 (52.3–78.2)60.6 (46.9–81.5)0.0887.4 (76.8–100.1)87.2 (78.1–98.4)0.66
 UACR327.5 (12.0–64.8)16.0 (6.9–70.0)0.4015.0 (8.0–29.5)13.0 (7.0–29.0)0.51
Medications
 Metformin332 (89.3)310 (83.3)0.021,028 (85.2)705 (58.4)<0.01
 Insulin252 (67.7)252 (67.7)0.99197 (16.3)197 (16.3)1.00
 ARB148 (39.8)154 (41.1)0.65111 (9.2)111 (9.2)1.00
 ACE inhibitors158 (42.5)164 (44.1)0.66536 (44.4)536 (44.4)1.00
 Other antihypertensive326 (87.6)328 (88.2)0.82811 (67.2)635 (52.6)<0.01
 Loop diuretics101 (27.2)92 (24.7)0.45134 (11.1)90 (7.5)<0.01
 Thiazide diuretics157 (42.2)116 (31.2)<0.01161 (13.3)131 (10.9)0.06
 NSAIDs3 (0.8)1 (0.3)0.32284 (23.5)284 (23.5)1.00
 Follow-up in days4436 (262–686)351 (219–654)<0.01458 (240–688)439 (214–686)0.84
SGLT2 inhibitor type
 Canagliflozin267 (71.8)NANA753 (60.6)NANA
 Dapagliflozin72 (19.4)NANA134 (10.8)NANA
 Empagliflozin33 (8.9)NANA355 (28.6)NANA
  • Continuous variables are presented as median (IQR), whereas categorical variables are presented as n (%). P1 and P2 are P values for primary and secondary analyses, respectively. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; NA, not applicable; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  • 1Smoking status was considered positive if ever smoker.

  • 2Calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation.

  • 3Geisinger cohort was missing 23.4% of urine ACR (UACR). Mount Sinai cohort was missing 85% of UACR.

  • 4In Mount Sinai, follow-up in days defined as time from start of SGLT2 inhibitor prescription to last outpatient encounter in users and time from first outpatient visit occurring between 2013 and 2015 to last outpatient visit in 2016 in nonusers. In Geisinger, follow-up time was defined from first SGLT2 inhibitor prescription in users and creatinine assessment in matched index year in nonusers until event or 10 February 2017.