Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to vital status during follow-up and stratified by death as a result of any cause and cardiovascular death

Death
CharacteristicAliveAny causeP valueCardiovascularP value
Participants (n)2,09927075
Male sex (%)47.060.7<0.00156.00.124
Age (years)38.8 ± 12.250.1 ± 10.5<0.00148.5 ± 9.5<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)21.9 ± 12.433.6 ± 10.8<0.00134.2 ± 9.1<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)25.2 ± 3.625.5 ± 4.20.15125.7 ± 4.10.22
WHR men0.92 ± 0.070.95 ± 0.08<0.0010.96 ± 0.08<0.001
WHR women0.82 ± 0.060.86 ± 0.08<0.0010.86 ± 0.05<0.001
SBP (mmHg)134 ± 18146 ± 23<0.001147 ± 22<0.001
DBP (mmHg)79 ± 1078 ± 110.23579 ± 120.747
HbA1c (%)8.3 ± 1.48.6 ± 1.4<0.0019.0 ± 1.4<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)67 ± 1570 ± 15<0.00175 ± 15<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.79 ± 0.864.91 ± 0.990.0274.83 ± 0.910.661
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.44 ± 0.401.38 ± 0.450.0471.23 ± 0.43<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.96 (0.74–1.33)1.25 (0.92–1.69)<0.0011.42 (1.07–2.02)<0.001
AHT (%)34.378.7<0.00185.3<0.001
β-Blockers (%)10.045.6<0.00154.7<0.001
Ever smokers (%)44.259.0<0.00152.10.185
LTPA (MET-h/week)17.2 (6.7–33.8)8.6 (0–26.7)<0.0018.0 (0–25.9)<0.001
Low exercise intensity (%)23.854.9<0.00154.8<0.001
Low exercise duration (%)12.426.3<0.00122.70.013
Low exercise frequency (%)13.833.0<0.00126.00.003
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or %. P values were calculated from univariable Cox proportional hazards regression models with a new event (any-cause death/cardiovascular death) as outcome. AHT, antihypertensive medication; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.