Table 2

Risk factors associated with all-cause mortality

Risk factorAdjusted HR (95% CI)P value
Age per 5-year increase1.27 (1.22–1.32)< 0.0001
Asymptomatic (no CHF) vs. NYHA I0.59 (0.45–0.76)< 0.0001
NYHA II vs. NYHA I1.17 (0.87–1.58)0.3035
NYHA III vs. NYHA I1.50 (1.04–2.15)0.0288
NYHA IV vs. NYHA I3.86 (1.64–9.08)0.002
History of PCI0.74 (0.65–0.85)< 0.0001
Female vs. male sex0.69 (0.59–0.79)< 0.0001
eGFR per log10 (mL/min/1.73 m2) higher0.46 (0.37–0.58)< 0.0001
Prior MI1.26 (1.10–1.43)0.0005
HbA1c (%) per 1% increase1.23 (1.08–1.39)0.0014
History of PAD1.28 (1.09–1.49)0.0024
Current vs. never smoker1.33 (1.09–1.62)0.0057
History of cerebrovascular disease1.22 (1.06–1.40)0.0064
  • By Cox proportional hazards model, multivariable analysis. Other variables in the model were history of hypertension (HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.97–1.44]; P = 0.0968) and former vs. never smoker (HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.87–1.14]; P = 0.9). CHF, congestive heart failure.