Table 3

Age- and sex-adjusted mean differences or percentage differences (95% CI) for offspring characteristics across groups of maternal prepregnancy BMI comparing offspring of mothers with GDM to control subjects

Maternal prepregnancy BMI <18.5Maternal prepregnancy BMI 18.5-<25Maternal prepregnancy BMI 25-<30Maternal prepregnancy BMI ≥30
NMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)PNMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)PNMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)PNMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)P
Anthropometric characteristics
 Weight (kg)44−2.04 (−7.64, 3.55)0.466463.24 (1.79, 4.70)<0.0012331.34 (−1.63, 4.31)0.371801.43 (−2.86, 5.73)0.51
 Height (cm)44−2.63 (−9.01, 3.75)0.416461.56 (0.36, 2.76)0.01234−0.63 (−2.78, 1.52)0.57180−0.08 (−2.97, 2.80)0.95
 BMI (kg/m2)*44−2% (−12 to 9%)0.726465% (3–7%)<0.0012344% (−1 to 9%)0.121803% (−3 to 10%)0.34
 Waist (cm)441.34 (−4.32, 7.00)0.636452.66 (1.51, 3.82)<0.0012323.00 (0.22, 5.78)0.031802.25 (−1.86, 6.37)0.28
 Hip circumference (cm)44−1.74 (−5.90, 2.41)0.406461.80 (0.66, 2.94)0.0022331.18 (−1.07, 3.43)0.301791.68 (−1.61, 4.97)0.32
 Head circumference (cm)44−1.14 (−2.43, 0.15)0.086440.42 (0.08, 0.76)0.012300.53 (0.03, 1.03)0.04179−0.22 (−0.98, 0.55)0.58
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)44−0.29 (−7.62, 7.04)0.946451.56 (0.16, 2.97)0.03231−0.54 (−2.74, 1.65)0.63178−0.75 (−3.80, 2.30)0.63
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)440.68 (−4.00, 5.36)0.77644−0.34 (−1.37, 0.70)0.532310.06 (−1.50, 1.62)0.94178−1.22 (−3.54, 1.09)0.30
 Heart rate (bpm)448.87 (−1.48, 19.22)0.096400.33 (−1.27, 1.93)0.692271.94 (−0.74, 4.62)0.16174−1.26 (−4.87, 2.34)0.49
Metabolic characteristics
 Whole-blood fasting glucose (mmol/L)*442% (−2 to 16%)0.796092% (1–5%)0.072224% (1–8%)0.021651% (−3 to 6%)0.57
 Plasma glucose (mmol/L)*41−3% (−12 to 6%)0.465744% (2–6%)0.00012104% (1–7%)0.011561% (−3 to 5%)0.64
 C-peptide (pmol/L)40155 (−4, 313)0.0657226 (−5, 57)0.10213−5 (−62, 52)0.8715443 (−33, 119)0.26
 Insulin (pmol/L)*3910% (−14 to 59%)0.6055911% (2–21%)0.02204−1% (−13 to 13%)0.9915019% (−1 to 43%)0.06
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)*405% (−17 to 51%)0.795735% (−1 to 11%)0.12214−6% (−17 to 6%)0.291548% (−8 to 27%)0.36
 HOMA-IR*399% (−27 to 62%)0.6855115% (5–26%)0.0022013% (−11 to 19%)0.6814822% (−1 to 50%)0.06
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)40−0.10 (−0.41, 0.20)0.50573−0.03 (−0.10, 0.03)0.30214−0.03 (−0.14, 0.08)0.57154−0.01 (−0.15, 0.12)0.84
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)400.02 (−0.51, 0.55)0.945730.02 (−0.09, 0.12)0.762140.13 (−0.07, 0.33)0.191540.03 (−0.23, 0.28)0.84
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)40−0.01 (−0.64, 0.61)0.975730.001 (−0.12, 0.12)0.982140.15 (−0.07, 0.36)0.18154−0.01 (−0.29, 0.26)0.93
Body composition
 Total fat (%)361.11 (−7.29, 9.50)0.793932.03 (0.42, 3.64)0.011131.34 (−1.63, 4.30)0.37690.43 (−3.58, 4.43)0.83
 Lean mass (%)36−0.98 (−8.73, 6.77)0.80393−1.91 (−3.40, −0.41)0.01113−1.26 (−4.01, 1.50)0.3769−0.47 (−4.19, 3.25)0.80
 Total android tissue (% fat)*366% (−43 to 97%)0.8539312% (1–26%)0.061133% (−14 to 24%)0.74691% (−19 to 26%)0.94
 Total gynoid tissue (% fat)360.69 (−8.02, 9.41)0.873931.69 (−0.07, 3.45)0.061130.72 (−2.19, 3.63)0.63690.20 (−3.50, 3.90)0.92
 Fat distribution (android/gynoid ratio)360.06 (−0.17, 0.28)0.603930.05 (−0.004, 0.09)0.051130.02 (−0.06, 0.10)0.57690.004 (−0.09, 0.10)0.94
 Total bone mass density (mg/cm2)36−0.04 (−0.14, 0.06)0.443930.01 (−0.01, 0.03)0.451130.001 (−0.03, 0.04)0.96690.01 (−0.04, 0.05)0.79
  • Age- and sex-adjusted mean differences or *% differences (95% CI) for offspring characteristics across groups of prepregnancy BMI comparing offspring of mothers with GDM to control offspring.