Table 2

Cox proportional hazards models for all-cause mortality and CVD incidence and mortality in participants with diabetes

Total participants, nDeaths/events, nHR (95% CI)P value
All-cause mortality
 Model 0347,1306,2091.72 (1.58, 1.88)<0.0001
 Model 1347,1306,2091.65 (1.51, 1.81)<0.0001
 Model 2347,1306,2091.55 (1.42, 1.70)<0.0001
CVD mortality
 Model 0347,1305942.19 (1.71, 2.80)<0.0001
 Model 1347,1305942.07 (1.61, 2.67)<0.0001
 Model 2347,1305941.95 (1.50, 2.52)<0.0001
CVD incidence
 Model 0347,1304,3011.44 (1.29, 1.61)<0.0001
 Model 1347,1304,3011.36 (1.21, 1.52)<0.0001
 Model 2347,1304,3011.22 (1.09, 1.37)0.001
Circulatory mortality
 Model 0347,1301,8112.49 (2.17, 2.85)<0.0001
 Model 1347,1301,8112.22 (1.93, 2.55)<0.0001
 Model 2347,1301,8112.00 (1.74, 2.31)<0.0001
Circulatory incidence
 Model 0347,13019,1301.50 (1.42, 1.58)<0.0001
 Model 1347,13019,1301.34 (1.27, 1.42)<0.0001
 Model 2347,13019,1301.22 (1.16, 1.29)<0.0001
  • People without diabetes were used as the reference category. Participants who were diagnosed with diabetes before age 30 years were removed from the analysis. All analyses were performed as a landmark analysis, with follow-up commencing 2 years after recruitment and including participants who were event free at that time. In addition, participants with comorbidities at baseline (depression, COPD, chronic asthma, chronic liver disease, alcohol problems, substance abuse, eating disorders, schizophrenia, cognitive impairment, Parkinson disease, dementia, chronic pain syndrome, heart disease, inflammatory disease, arthrosis, arthritis, and cancer [n = 103,755]) were excluded from all analyses. Model 0 was adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation index, professional qualifications, gross income, employment, and month of recruitment. Model 1 was adjusted for duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, baseline prevalence of hypertension, and history of recent medication for diabetes (insulin), hypertension, and cholesterol. Model 2 was adjusted for model 1 plus BMI categories, smoking, TV viewing, PC screen time, categories of sleep duration, and dietary intake (alcohol, fruits and vegetables, red meat, processed meat, and oily fish).