Table 2

Multivariable models

A: Multivariable models predicting progression to diabetes at 3 years Hazard ratio (95% CI)
PredictorsLifestyleMetforminPlacebo
Age1.016 (1.002, 1.029)
Sex and GDM status
 Female with no history of pregnancy vs. male0.745 (0.453, 1.225)
 Female with history of pregnancy but no GDM vs. male1.120 (0.847, 1.482)
 Female with history of GDM vs. male1.566 (1.080, 2.272)
College graduate vs. non–college graduate1.322 (1.044, 1.673)
Current smoking: yes vs. no1.590 (0.998, 2.531)
Physical activity >150 min/week: yes vs. no1.304 (0.935, 1.818)
Polycystic ovarian disease: yes vs. no1.920 (0.944, 3.905)
Family history of diabetes: yes vs. no1.311 (0.964, 1.783)
BMI (kg/m2)1.050 (1.028, 1.072)1.019 (1.002, 1.035)
SBP (mmHg)1.009 (1.000, 1.018)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)1.074 (1.054, 1.094)1.057 (1.042, 1.073)1.089 (1.075, 1.103)
Natural log-transformed TG (mg/dL)1.506 (1.104, 2.053)1.717 (1.305, 2.260)1.279 (1.005, 1.627)
Adherence at 6 months: yes vs. no0.366 (0.264, 0.507)0.819 (0.614, 1.094)1.243 (0.928, 1.665)
B: Multivariable models predicting regression to NGR at 3 yearsHazard ratio (95% CI)
PredictorsLifestyleMetforminPlacebo
Age0.989 (0.981, 0.998)0.984 (0.971, 0.996)0.991 (0.978, 1.004)
Sex and GDM status
 Female with no history of pregnancy vs. male0.610 (0.388, 0.960)
 Female with history of pregnancy but no GDM vs. male0.771 (0.585, 1.016)
 Female with history of GDM vs. male0.594 (0.370, 0.955)
College graduates vs. non–college graduates1.301 (1.010, 1.667)
SBP (mmHg)0.992 (0.983, 1.001)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)0.950 (0.936, 0.963)0.945 (0.928, 0.962)0.919 (0.898, 0.940)
Natural log-transformed TG (mg/dL)0.765 (0.634, 0.923)0.733 (0.578, 0.929)0.727 (0.550, 0.961)
Adherence at 6 months: yes vs. no1.867 (1.496, 2.331)1.093 (0.831, 1.438)0.753 (0.556, 1.018)
  • Adherence is defined as losing 5% of initial body weight at 6 months in the lifestyle group or reporting taking pills ≥80% of the time in the metformin and placebo groups. For categorical variables, 1 = yes and 0 = no.