Table 2

Differences in offspring anthropometric and metabolic characteristics comparing offspring of mothers with GDM to control subjects after adjustment for offspring age, sex, and BMI and maternal prepregnancy BMI

Offspring outcomesMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)PcMean difference or % difference* (95% CI)Pd
Anthropometric characteristics
 BMI (kg/m2)#4% (2–6%)<0.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)0.83 (0.30, 1.35)0.0020.52 (−0.06, 1.08)0.08
 Hip circumference (cm)0.01 (−0.48, 0.49)0.97
 WHR0.009 (0.003, 0.02)0.0020.009 (0.002, 0.02)0.01
 Head circumference (cm)0.17 (−0.05, 0.40)0.13
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.30 (−0.70, 1.30)0.55
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)−0.63 (−1.26, 0.11)0.09
 Heart rate (bpm)0.82 (−0.37, 2.02)0.17
Metabolic characteristics
 Whole-blood fasting glucose (mmol/L)*2% (1–4%)0.022% (1–4%)0.02
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)*4% (1–5%)<0.00014% (2–5%)<0.0001
 Fasting insulin (pmol/L)*7% (1–13%)0.044% (−2 to 11%)0.18
 C-peptide (pmol/L)8.7 (−13, 30)0.43
 HOMA-IR*11% (4–18%)0.0028% (1–16%)0.02
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)*0% (−5 to 5%)0.92
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)−0.02 (−0.07, 0.02)0.30
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)0.003 (−0.07, 0.08)0.93
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)−0.002 (−0.09, 0.09)0.96
Body composition measured by DEXA
 Total fat (%)0.72 (−0.17, 1.61)0.11
 Total lean mass (%)−0.70 (−1.54, 0.14)0.10
 Total android tissue (% fat)*2% (−4 to 8%)0.50
 Total gynoid tissue (% fat)0.56 (−0.48, 1.59)0.29
 Fat distribution (android/gynoid ratio)0.005 (−0.02, 0.03)0.66
 Total bone mass density (mg/cm2)−0.007 (−0.02, 0.007)0.30
  • *Non-normally distributed variables

  • cP adjusted for age, sex, and offspring BMI.

  • dP adjusted for age, sex, offspring BMI, and maternal prepregnancy BMI. Only variables that were significant after adjustment for offspring BMI were further adjusted for maternal prepregnancy BMI.

  • #Adjusted for age, sex, and maternal prepregnancy BMI.