Table 1

Cohort characteristics by categories of handgrip strength and diagnosed diabetes

Without diabetesWith diabetes
Sociodemographic characteristicOverallLow strengthMiddle strengthHigh strengthLow strengthMiddle strengthHigh strength
Total participants347,13060,979136,679136,0993,7495,3674,257
Women188,171 (54.2)33,043 (54.2)75,350 (55.1)74,562 (54.8)1,410 (37.6)2,030 (37.8)1,776 (41.7)
Age (years)55.9 (8.1)55.9 (8.0)56.0 (8.1)55.4 (8.2)59.1 (7.2)59.4 (7.2)58.8 (7.2)
Deprivation index quintiles
 Low120,852 (34.8)18,352 (30.1)47,745 (35.0)51,088 (37.5)810 (21.6)1,501 (28.0)1,356 (31.9)
 Middle118,416 (34.1)19,981 (32.8)46,921 (34.3)47,215 (34.7)1,112 (29.7)1,743 (32.5)1,444 (33.9)
 High107,862 (31.1)22,646 (37.1)42,013 (30.7)37,796 (27.8)1,827 (48.7)2,123 (39.5)1,457 (34.2)
Professional qualification
 College or university degree118,754 (40.4)18,999 (38.5)46,573 (40.3)49,682 (41.9)908 (34.1)1,397 (34.0)1,195 (35.6)
 A/AS levels or equivalent39,908 (13.6)6,714 (13.6)15,572 (13.5)16,313 (13.7)339 (12.7)567 (13.8)403 (12.0)
 O level/GCSE or equivalent75,581 (25.7)13,054 (26.4)30,301 (26.2)29,464 (24.8)718 (27.0)1,144 (27.9)900 (26.8)
 CSE or equivalent20,044 (6.8)3,926 (7.9)7,919 (6.9)7,531 (6.3)210 (7.8)251 (6.1)207 (6.1)
 NVQ or HND or HNC or equivalent22,247 (7.6)3,778 (7.6)8,543 (7.4)8,821 (7.4)268 (10.1)438 (10.7)399 (11.9)
 Other professional qualification17,424 (5.9)2,980 (6.0)6,691 (5.7)6,969 (5.9)221 (8.3)307 (7.5)256 (7.6)
Income
 <£18,00057,816 (19.2)12,637 (24.4)22,813 (19.2)18,798 (15.7)1,268 (40.6)1,377 (30.3)923 (25.3)
 £18,000–51,999157,608 (52.2)26,720 (51.7)62,401 (52.5)62,778 (52.4)1,434 (45.9)2,342 (51.6)1,933 (53.0)
 >£52,00086,251 (28.6)12,378 (23.9)33,623 (28.3)38,209 (31.9)425 (13.5)824 (18.1)792 (21.7)
Employment status
 Paid or self-employed216,635 (62.9)36,259 (60.1)85,494 (63.1)88,582 (65.5)1,579 (42.8)2,502 (47.1)2,219 (52.5)
 Retired104,497 (30.4)18,457 (30.6)41,648 (30.7)38,746 (28.7)1,556 (42.4)2,385 (44.8)1,705 (40.4)
 Looking after home and/or family9,845 (2.9)1,728 (2.9)3,797 (2.8)4,026 (3.0)99 (2.6)106 (2.0)89 (2.1)
 Unable to work because of sickness or disability5,269 (1.5)2,067 (3.4)1,537 (1.1)1,094 (0.8)296 (8.0)177 (3.3)98 (2.3)
 Unemployed5,498 (1.6)1,339 (2.2)2,140 (1.6)1,683 (1.3)132 (3.6)116 (2.2)88 (2.1)
 Unpaid or voluntary work1,568 (0.5)278 (0.5)591 (0.4)642 (0.5)15 (0.4)22 (0.4)20 (0.5)
 Full- or part-time student929 (0.2)183 (0.3)336 (0.3)382 (0.2)10 (0.2)11 (0.2)7 (0.1)
Race/ethnicity
 White328,088 (94.5)55,634 (91.2)130,014 (95.2)130,896 (96.2)2,955 (78.8)4,719 (87.9)3,870 (90.9)
 South Asian6,601 (1.9)2,602 (4.3)2,245 (1.6)870 (0.6)478 (12.8)309 (5.8)98 (2.3)
 Black5,930 (1.7)1,084 (1.8)1,938 (1.4)2,355 (1.7)160 (4.3)194 (3.6)199 (4.7)
 Chinese1,221 (0.4)373 (0.6)512 (0.4)275 (0.2)24 (0.6)25 (0.5)12 (0.3)
 Mixed background/other5,290 (1.5)1,287 (2.1)1,970 (1.4)1,703 (1.3)132 (3.5)120 (2.2)78 (1.8)
Smoking status
 Never198,235 (57.1)36,187 (59.3)79,118 (57.9)76,381 (56.1)1,942 (51.8)2,659 (49.5)1,948 (45.8)
 Former115,472 (33.3)18,597 (30.5)44,707 (32.7)46,654 (34.3)1,429 (38.1)2,205 (41.1)1,880 (44.2)
 Current33,423 (9.6)6,195 (10.2)12,854 (9.4)13,064 (9.6)378 (10.1)503 (9.4)429 (10.0)
Obesity-related markers
 BMI (kg/m2)27.2 (4.6)27.1 (4.7)26.8 (4.4)27.1 (4.4)31.1 (6.0)31.0 (5.7)31.2 (5.6)
 BMI category
  Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)1,659 (0.5)448 (0.7)754 (0.5)439 (0.3)11 (0.3)4 (0.1)3 (0.1)
  Normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)118,469 (34.1)21,219 (34.8)49,991 (36.6)45,661 (33.6)485 (12.9)653 (12.2)460 (10.8)
  Overweight (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2)148,864 (42.9)25,418 (41.7)58,380 (42.7)60,315 (44.3)1,319 (35.2)1,912 (35.6)1,520 (35.7)
  Obese (≥30.0 kg/m2)78,138 (22.5)13,894 (22.8)27,554 (20.2)29,684 (21.8)1,934 (51.6)2,798 (52.1)2,274 (53.4)
 Waist circumference (cm)89.6 (13.1)89.6 (13.1)88.6 (12.8)89.3 (12.8)102.5 (14.5)101.8 (14.2)101.6 (14.1)
 Central obesity108,502 (31.3)19,575 (32.1)39,323 (28.8)41,112 (30.2)2,401 (64.1)3,355 (62.5)2,736 (64.3)
 Body fat (%)31.0 (8.5)31.5 (8.6)30.9 (8.4)30.6 (8.4)33.8 (8.6)33.4 (8.5)33.4 (8.6)
Fitness, physical activity, and sleep
 Grip strength (kg)31.2 (11.0)21.3 (7.6)29.2 (8.3)37.7 (10.5)22.0 (7.4)30.9 (8.0)38.9 (10.1)
 Total physical activity (MET-h/week)6.6 (9.1)5.9 (8.8)6.5 (9.0)7.0 (9.3)4.9 (8.4)5.6 (8.0)6.2 (8.9)
 TV viewing (h/day)2.7 (1.6)2.8 (1.7)2.7 (1.5)2.6 (1.5)3.5 (2.0)3.3 (1.8)3.2 (1.7)
 PC screen time (h/day)1.2 (1.3)1.2 (1.4)1.2 (1.3)1.2 (1.3)1.3 (1.6)1.3 (1.6)1.3 (1.4)
 Sleep time category
  Normal (7–9 h)259,008 (74.9)43,542 (71.8)102,490 (75.2)103,643 (76.3)2,480 (66.7)3,786 (70.9)3,067 (72.3)
  Short sleepers (<7 h)82,776 (23.9)16,059 (26.5)32,219 (23.7)30,901 (22.8)1,108 (29.8)1,410 (26.4)1,079 (25.5)
  Long sleepers (>9 h)4,190 (1.2)1,035 (1.7)1,542 (1.1)1,239 (0.9)132 (3.5)148 (2.7)94 (2.2)
Dietary intake
 TE (kcal/day)2,118 (645)2,097 (666)2,109 (636)2,136 (641)2,080 (731)2,093 (684)2,128 (686)
 Protein (% of TE)15.5 (3.6)15.5 (3.7)15.5 (3.6)15.6 (3.6)16.2 (4.2)16.2 (4.0)16.4 (3.7)
 Carbohydrates (% of TE)47.2 (8.1)47.7 (8.4)47.2 (8.1)46.9 (8.0)47.0 (8.8)46.4 (8.3)45.9 (8.3)
 Total fat (% of TE)32.0 (6.7)31.9 (6.8)32.0 (6.7)32.1 (6.6)32.7 (7.2)32.4 (7.0)32.8 (7.0)
 Saturated fat (% of TE)12.3 (3.3)12.2 (3.4)12.2 (3.3)12.3 (3.3)12.4 (3.6)12.4 (3.5)12.4 (3.4)
 Sugar (% of TE)22.5 (7.0)22.7 (7.3)22.5 (6.9)22.5 (6.8)20.4 (7.4)20.2 (6.8)20.0 (6.7)
 Alcohol (% of TE)5.3 (6.5)4.9 (6.5)5.3 (6.5)5.4 (6.4)4.1 (6.7)4.9 (7.1)4.9 (6.9)
 Red meat (portions/week)1.9 (1.4)1.9 (1.4)1.9 (1.4)1.9 (1.4)2.1 (1.7)2.1 (1.6)2.1 (1.5)
 Processed meat (portions/week)1.9 (1.1)1.9 (1.1)1.9 (1.1)1.9 (1.0)2.0 (1.1)2.0 (1.1)2.0 (1.0)
 Fruits and vegetables (g/day)330.4 (192.0)322.9 (201.9)327.3 (189.0)334.5 (188.5)346.8 (201.0)352.3 (204.5)361.8 (214.8)
 Oily fish (portions/week)1.1 (1.0)1.1 (1.0)1.1 (1.0)1.1 (1.0)1.1 (1.2)1.2 (1.1)1.2 (1.1)
Health status
 Duration of diabetes (years)0.2 (1.6)0006.7 (6.4)6.0 (5.8)5.5 (5.7)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)139.7 (19.6)138,1 (19.6)139.2 (19.7)140.5 (19.5)142.8 (18.6)144.3 (18.1)145.3 (17.9)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82.5 (10.7)81.7 (10.8)82.2 (10.7)83.0 (10.6)81.6 (10.0)82.5 (9.9)83.4 (10.0)
 High blood pressure history79,937 (23.0)14,243 (23.4)29,264 (21.4)28,573 (21.0)2,224 (59.3)3,178 (59.2)2,455 (57.7)
Medication for cholesterol or blood pressure
 None310,655 (89.5)54,200 (88.9)123,477 (90.3)123,690 (90.9)2,614 (69.7)3,761 (70.1)2,913 (68.4)
 Cholesterol18,119 (5.2)3,184 (5.2)5,977 (4.4)5,461 (4.0)963 (25.7)1,393 (26.0)1,141 (26.8)
 Insulin117 (0.04)00051 (1.2)39 (0.7)27 (0.7)
 Blood pressure 18,356 (5.3)3,595 (5.9)7,225 (5.3)6,948 (5.1)172 (4.6)213 (3.9)203 (4.8)
  • Data are n (%) for categorical variables or mean (SD) for continuous variables. Data were available for 210,064 participants. A/AS, advanced; CSE, Certificate of Secondary Education; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; HNC, Higher National Certificate; HND, Higher National Diploma; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification; O, ordinary; TE, total energy.