Table 1

Baseline characteristics and specific causes of mortality

CV deathNon-CV death
CharacteristicSudden death (n = 145)Acute MI/stroke (n = 113)HF (n = 63)Presumed and other CV cause (n = 209)Malignancy (n = 154)Other (n = 184)Unknown cause (n = 216)
Demographic
 Age (years)67 (62, 73)69 (63, 75)70 (65, 77)68 (61, 74)69 (65, 74)71 (65, 77)70 (62, 76)
 Female sex36 (25)39 (35)16 (25)49 (23)31 (20)49 (27)59 (27)
 Race
  White88 (61)84 (74)44 (70)127 (61)135 (88)117 (64)141 (65)
  Black5 (3)3 (3)3 (5)1 (0)1 (1)5 (3)6 (3)
  Asian39 (27)10 (9)9 (14)56 (27)13 (8)34 (18)46 (21)
  Other13 (9)16 (14)7 (11)25 (12)5 (3)28 (15)23 (11)
 Not Hispanic or Latino130 (90)94 (83)55 (87)178 (85)143 (93)142 (77)187 (87)
 Hispanic or Latino15 (10)19 (17)8 (13)31 (15)11 (7)42 (23)29 (13)
Medical history and baseline laboratory results
 Duration of diabetes (years)11.0 (6.0, 17.0)11.0 (6.0, 18.0)13.0 (6.0, 17.0)11.0 (5.0, 17.0)11.0 (6.0, 20.0)12.0 (6.0, 20.0)11.0 (6.0, 18.5)
 Qualifying HbA1c
   %7.3 (6.9, 7.7)7.2 (6.8, 7.7)7.1 (6.7, 7.6)7.3 (6.8, 7.7)7.2 (6.9, 7.5)7.3 (6.9, 7.7)7.3 (6.8, 7.8)
  mmol/mol56 (52, 61)55 (51, 61)54 (50, 60)56 (51, 61)55 (52, 59)56 (51, 61)56 (51, 61)
 HbA1c
  %7.4 (6.8, 7.8)7.2 (6.8, 7.8)7.2 (6.7, 7.6)7.3 (6.9, 7.8)7.2 (6.8, 7.6)7.2 (6.8, 7.7)7.3 (6.8, 7.8)
  mmol/mol57 (51, 62)55 (51, 62)55 (50, 60)56 (52, 62)55 (51, 60)55 (51, 61)56 (51, 62)
 Qualifying HbA1c categories
  <7%42 (30)38 (34)25 (40)64 (31)47 (32)58 (32)73 (34)
  7–7.5%37 (26)28 (25)17 (27)56 (27)56 (38)48 (27)56 (26)
  ≥7.5%63 (44)46 (41)21 (33)85 (41)46 (31)75 (41)84 (39)
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)63.0 (53.6, 80.0)61.0 (51.0, 81.0)60.0 (48.0, 78.0)68.0 (56.0, 90.0)66.0 (57.0, 82.0)63.5 (50.0, 79.0)65.0 (54.8, 82.0)
 Log10 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)4.1 (4.0, 4.4)4.1 (4.0, 4.4)4.1 (3.9, 4.4)4.1 (3.9, 4.4)4.2 (4.0, 4.5)4.2 (4.0, 4.4)4.2 (3.9, 4.4)
 Serum Cr (mg/dL)1.10 (0.90, 1.24)1.04 (0.90, 1.24)1.12 (0.90, 1.42)1.02 (0.85, 1.21)1.05 (0.88, 1.26)1.10 (0.90, 1.32)1.05 (0.85, 1.24)
 Log10 Cr (mg/dL)0.10 (−0.11, 0.22)0.04 (−0.11, 0.22)0.11 (−0.10, 0.35)0.02 (−0.16, 0.19)0.04 (−0.13, 0.23)0.10 (−0.11, 0.28)0.05 (−0.16, 0.22)
 History of vascular disease143 (99)113 (100)62 (98)207 (99)154 (100)182 (99)214 (99)
 History of CAD114 (79)83 (73)56 (89)153 (73)119 (77)134 (73)150 (69)
 Cerebrovascular disease35 (24)44 (39)13 (21)69 (33)37 (24)50 (27)66 (31)
 PAD28 (19)18 (16)8 (13)37 (18)29 (19)48 (26)46 (21)
 Prior MI74 (51)55 (49)42 (67)99 (47)64 (42)85 (46)97 (45)
 Prior CHF52 (36)42 (37)31 (49)62 (30)31 (20)64 (35)66 (31)
 History of hypertension127 (88)103 (91)53 (84)189 (90)137 (89)170 (92)194 (90)
 NYHA classification
  I11 (21)7 (17)6 (19)8 (13)8 (26)10 (16)8 (12)
  II19 (37)16 (38)11 (35)37 (60)16 (52)25 (39)29 (44)
  III9 (17)12 (29)7 (23)9 (15)1 (3)11 (17)10 (15)
  IV2 (4)0 (0)1 (3)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)4 (6)
  Not available11 (21)7 (17)6 (19)8 (13)6 (19)18 (28)15 (23)
 Systolic BP (mmHg)132 (122, 146)140 (126, 151)130 (117, 140)130 (120, 146)135 (124, 145)133 (125, 149)135 (123, 145)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)78 (70, 83)80 (70, 82)75 (67, 80)80 (70, 86)75 (67, 81)75 (68, 82)78 (70, 85)
 Weight (kg)84 (68, 98)80 (69, 95)85 (72, 95)81 (69, 98)86 (77, 98)80 (67, 91)78 (66, 93)
 BMI (kg/m2)29.5 (25.5, 33.5)28.5 (25.5, 32.4)29.5 (26.6, 33.5)28.7 (25.3, 32.9)29.5 (26.5, 33.7)28.4 (25.3, 32.1)28.4 (25.8, 32.5)
 Smoking history
  Never82 (57)57 (50)32 (51)98 (47)52 (34)84 (46)110 (51)
  Current16 (11)12 (11)6 (10)31 (15)23 (15)19 (10)21 (10)
  Former47 (32)44 (39)25 (40)80 (38)79 (51)81 (44)85 (39)
Antihyperglycemic therapies
 Metformin117 (81)87 (77)45 (71)159 (76)113 (73)121 (66)150 (69)
 Sulfonylurea71 (49)64 (57)33 (52)100 (48)69 (45)78 (42)105 (49)
 Pioglitazone/thiazolidinedione1 (1)4 (4)4 (6)2 (1)5 (3)3 (2)7 (3)
 Insulin45 (31)17 (15)16 (25)54 (26)45 (29)66 (36)59 (27)
CV medications
 Statins109 (75)84 (74)46 (73)156 (75)130 (84)129 (70)151 (70)
 Aspirin107 (74)71 (63)45 (71)152 (73)110 (71)139 (76)158 (73)
 ACE inhibitors/ARBs126 (87)92 (81)53 (84)158 (76)119 (77)146 (79)167 (77)
 β-Blockers102 (70)77 (68)41 (65)136 (65)98 (64)115 (63)140 (65)
 Diuretics94 (65)63 (56)40 (63)113 (54)62 (40)89 (48)114 (53)
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; CHF, congestive heart failure; Cr, creatinine.