Table 1

Anthropometric, metabolic, body composition, and puberty characteristics of offspring of mothers with GDM and control subjects at ages 9–16 years

Crude measurementsPaAge- and sex-adjusted estimates for mean difference (95% CI) or % difference (IQR)*Pb
Offspring of mothers with GDMControl offspring
Anthropometric characteristics, N546–561590–597
 Age (years)12.1 (1.5)12.8 (1.5)<0.001
 Sex (boys)295 (52.6%)301 (50.4%)0.68
 Weight (kg)48.5 (12.7)47.2 (12.1)0.084.66 (3.48, 5.84)<0.001
 Height (cm)156.8 (11.4)159.5 (11.4)<0.0011.15 (0.27, 2.03)0.01
 BMI (kg/m2)*18.8 (4.2)17.9 (3.4)<0.0019% (7–11%)<0.001
 Waist (cm)73.3 (10.6)69.9 (8.4)<0.0014.92 (3.87, 5.98)<0.001
 Hip circumference (cm)83.8 (9.6)82.7 (9.3)0.073.47 (2.55, 4.39)<0.001
 WHR0.87 (0.06)0.85 (0.05)<0.0010.02 (0.01, 0.03)<0.001
 Head circumference (cm)55.8 (2.1)55.5 (2.2)0.180.51 (0.28, 0.75)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)109.7 (8.6)109.5 (8.6)0.751.04 (0.06, 2.01)0.04
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)62.5 (6.0)62.6 (6.1)0.84−0.20 (−0.92, 0.51)0.58
 Heart rate (bpm)69.7 (2.1)68.1 (10.0)0.0010.81 (−0.34, 1.96)0.17
Metabolic characteristics, N468–522508–559
 Whole-blood fasting glucose (mmol/L)*4.7 (0.8)4.5 (0.7)<0.0013% (1–5%)0.001
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)*5.0 (0.8)4.8 (0.6)<0.0014% (3–6%)<0.001
 Fasting insulin (pmol/L)*69.4 (47.3)61.3 (34.7)0.00117% (10–24%)<0.001
 Fasting C-peptide (pmol/L)596 (211)575 (189)0.0551 (28, 74)<0.001
 HOMA-IR*2.2 (1.6)1.9 (1.1)<0.00121% (14–30%)<0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)*0.73 (0.4)0.70 (0.4)0.585% (1–10%)0.04
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.5 (0.4)1.6 (0.4)0.11−0.07 (−0.11, −0.02)0.004
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.4 (0.7)2.3 (0.6)0.080.06 (−0.01, 0.14)0.11
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.3 (0.7)4.2 (0.7)0.220.03 (−0.05, 0.12)0.47
Body composition measured by DEXA, N191446
 Total fat (%)31.2 (8.1)27.0 (7.0)<0.0013.45 (2.22, 4.69)<0.001
 Total lean mass (%)66.2 (7.5)70.1 (6.5)<0.001−3.21 (−4.37, −2.07)<0.001
 Total android tissue (% fat)*25.6 (20.1)19.4 (13.8)<0.00122% (12–33%)<0.001
 Total gynoid tissue (% fat)35.3 (8.3)31.2 (7.8)<0.0012.98 (1.71, 4.25)<0.001
 Fat distribution (android/gynoid ratio)0.73 (0.2)0.66 (0.18)<0.0010.08 (0.05, 0.12)<0.001
 Total bone mass density (mg/cm2)0.9 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)<0.0010.02 (0.001, 0.03)0.04
Puberty status, N192–238176–256
 Girls breast stage, n yes ≥B2 (%)141 (59.2%)169 (66.0%)0.181.99 (1.18, 3.34)0.01
 Girls pubic hair, n yes ≥PH2 (%)99 (44.8%)133 (56.1%)0.061.51 (0.90, 2.55)0.12
 Boys testis size, n yes ≥4 mL (%)143 (74.5%)156 (85.7%)0.020.77 (0.42, 1.41)0.40
 Boys pubic hair, n yes ≥PH2 (%)50 (24.3%)60 (29.6%)0.021.74 (0.92, 3.28)0.09
 Boys genital stage, n yes ≥G2 (%)63 (32.6%)66 (37.5%)0.071.24 (0.72, 2.14)0.45
  • For the crude estimate, data are presented as the mean (SD) or *median (interquartile range [IQR]) for normally and non-normally distributed variables, respectively. When data are adjusted for age and sex, they are presented as either mean difference when the residuals are normally distributed or as % difference when data are log transformed. Android tissue % fat, located in the abdominal area; gynoid tissue fat %, located around the hips.

  • †Values are n (%) and adjusted estimates are OR (95% CI) and are only adjusted for age.

  • aP values calculated using Student t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, or χ2 tests.

  • bP values for age- and sex-adjusted measurements comparing GDM to control offspring.