Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the DPP population by adherence status

LifestyleMetforminPlacebo
Total (N = 1,059)Adherent (N = 661 [62%])Nonadherent (N = 398 [38%])P value*Total (N = 1,046)Adherent (N = 713 [68%])Nonadherent (N = 291 [32%])P value*Total (N = 1,058)Adherent (N = 766 [72%])Nonadherent (N = 238 [28%])P value*
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Mean age ± SD (years)50.6 ± 11.352.0 ± 11.448.4 ± 10.9<0.000150.9 ± 10.351.3 ± 10.250.5 ± 10.40.214250.3 ± 10.451.1 ± 10.450.5 ± 10.40.0011
 Sex [N (%)]0.06410.1223
 Male sex [(N (%)]339226 (34)113 (28)352251 (35)85 (29)328238 (31)75 (32)0.7625
  Female with no history of pregnancy11162 (9)49 (12)10273 (10)25 (9)9774 (10)18 (8)
  Female with history of pregnancy but no GDM474298 (45)176 (44)464306 (43)140 (48)485347 (45)113 (47)
  Female with history of pregnancy and GDM10457 (9)47 (12)10365 (9)35 (12)11177 (10)26 (11)
 Race/ethnicity [N (%)]<0.00010.0200
  White576401 (61)175 (44)589429 (60)142 (50)575445 (58)102 (43)0.0005
  African American20294 (14)108 (27)218135 (19)72 (25)218138 (18)69 (29)
  Hispanic176107 (16)69 (17)15996 (13)53 (18)166112 (15)43 (18)
  Asian5532 (5)23 (6)3521 (3)11 (4)4734 (4)11 (5)
  American Indian5027(4)23 (6)4532 (4)13 (4)5237 (5)13 (5)
 College graduate [N (%)]490318 (48)172 (43)0.1219490358 (50)113 (39)0.0010489359 (47)108 (45)0.6875
  Annual household income [N (%)]0.39260.01450.5807
  <$30,00014488 (13)56 (14)13477 (11)51 (18)156105 (14)39 (16)
  $30,000–50,000405244 (37)161 (40)377263 (37)97 (33)396290 (38)86 (36)
  >$50,000510329 (50)181 (45)534372 (52)143 (49)506371 (48)113 (47)
Health behaviors [N (%)]
 Current smoking7033 (5)37 (9)0.00637246 (6)23 (8)0.40938464 (8)13 (5)0.1429
 Physical activity0.28950.11900.6519
  >150 min/week514310 (47)204 (51)521365 (51)145 (50)528377 (49)122 (51)
  90–150 min/week163101 (15)62 (16)154110 (15)33 (11)166125 (16)33 (15)
  <90 min/week380248 (38)132 (33)371238 (33)113 (39)364264 (34)83 (35)
Past history and family history
 Polycystic ovary disease (among women)187 (1)11 (3)0.03762619 (3)6 (2)0.57802012 (2)5 (2)0.5768
 Family history of diabetes739448 (68)291 (73)0.0722719494 (69)198 (68)0.6993738529 (69)172 (72)0.3597
Medications
 Antihypertensive medication177113 (17)64 (16)0.6681161104 (15)52 (18)0.1926160129 (17)26 (11)0.0273
 Statin3121 (3)10 (3)0.53443931 (4)7 (2)0.14344941 (5)7 (3)0.1278
Anthropometric measures (mean ± SD)
 Weight (kg)94.3 ± 20.893.8 ± 20.895.1 ± 20.90.336194.4 ± 19.894.5 ± 19.393.2 ± 19.10.357894.5 ± 20.194.7 ± 20.193.8 ± 19.80.5434
 BMI (kg/m2)33.9 ± 6.833.6 ± 6.734.4 ± 7.00.071733.9 ± 6.633.8 ± 6.333.8 ± 6.60.991934.2 ± 6.734.3 ± 6.834.0 ± 6.30.6131
 SBP (mmHg)124 ± 15124 ± 14123 ± 160.0966124 ± 15124 ± 15123 ± 150.4598124 ± 14124 ± 14123 ± 140.2004
 DBP (mmHg)79 ± 979 ± 979 ± 90.583478 ± 1078 ± 1078 ± 100.768278 ± 978 ± 978 ± 100.5321
Laboratory measures
 FPG mean ± SD (mg/dL)106 ± 8106 ± 8106 ± 80.8797107 ± 8107 ± 8107 ± 90.9148107 ± 8107 ± 8107 ± 80.8123
 TG median (IQR) (mg/dL)137 (97–198)137 (98–197)139 (93–200)0.9319136 (98–195)141 (101–199)133 (93–186)0.3958147 (104–205)149 (105–211)136 (101–183)0.1727
  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IQR, interquartile range.

  • *P values are calculated from Pearson χ2 test of independence for categorical variables and two-sample t test for continuous variables.