Table 2

Characteristics of patient cohort divided into patients with and without diabetes, according to β-blocker (bisoprolol) daily dose

No diabetesDiabetes
None (n = 201)<2.5 mg/day (n = 216)2.5–7.4 mg/day (n = 635)≥7.5 mg/day (n = 242)None (n = 73)<2.5 mg/day (n = 70)2.5–7.4 mg/day (n = 243)≥7.5 mg/day (n = 117)
Age (years)71.7 (0.8)**70.4 (0.9)69.5 (0.5)66.4 (0.9)70.9 (1.3)70.1 (1.4)70.8 (0.7)68.6 (0.9)
Heart rate (bpm)77.1 (1.3)**78.6 (1.4)73.7 (0.7)75 (1.3)79.6 (2.7)*79.6 (2.1)73 (1)75.4 (1.8)
Systolic BP (mmHg)123.8 (1.6)121.7 (1.7)121.3 (1)119.7 (1.3)126.3 (2.8)124.5 (2.5)123.8 (1.6)127.2 (1.9)
RPP (bpm × mmHg)9,609 (216)**9,482 (218)8,924 (124)8,768 (180)9,649 (444)*9,771 (337)9,753 (172)9,321 (137)
QRS duration (ms)123 (2)123 (2)125 (1)120 (2)124 (4)122 (4)120 (2)122 (3)
Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.6 (0.1)13.5 (0.1)13.6 (0.1)13.9 (0.1)12.8 (0.2)12.8 (0.2)12.9 (0.1)13.2 (0.2)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)58.6 (1.3)60.6 (1.4)58.6 (0.8)59.3 (1.2)53.1 (2.2)55.4 (2.5)53 (1.4)57.3 (1.8)
LVEDD (mm)56 (1)57 (1)58 (1)58 (1)56 (1)55 (1)56 (1)57 (1)
LVEF (%)33 (1)*31 (1)31 (1)31 (1)34 (1)32 (1)33 (1)33 (1)
Bisoprolol (mg/day)0**1.2 (0.01)3.6 (0.05)9.6 (0.11)0**1.3 (0.01)3.7 (0.08)9.6 (0.16)
Ramipril (mg/day)4.2 (0.2)**4 (0.2)4.8 (0.1)6 (0.2)4.7 (0.4)**3.9 (0.4)5.3 (0.2)6.6 (0.3)
Furosemide (mg/day)45 (4)43 (3)45 (2)45 (3)74 (7)63 (6)69 (3)66 (6)
Male sex (% [n])68 (137)71 (154)72 (459)75 (182)70 (51)71 (50)78 (189)80 (93)
IHD etiology (% [n])59 (119)52 (112)54 (341)57 (138)60 (44)77 (54)73 (341)67 (78)
ICD in situ (% [n])9.5 (19)**6.9 (15)11.7 (74)18.2 (44)5.5 (4)*5.7 (4)12.8 (31)16.2 (19)
CRT in situ (% [n])22.9 (46)24.5 (53)26 (165)27.3 (66)28.8 (21)12.9 (9)25.1 (61)29.1 (34)
NYHA class III/IV (% [n])38 (76)**31.9 (69)26.9 (171)21.1 (51)56.2 (41)**40 (28)33.3 (81)31.6 (37)
  • Data are presented as mean (SEM) or as indicated. P value separately compares dose groups for patients with and without diabetes with ANOVA or χ2 tests.

  • BP, blood pressure; IHD, ischemic heart disease; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; RPP, rate-pressure product.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • **P < 0.005.