Table 1

Characteristics of participants in FHS and ARIC by incident T2D status at follow-up

FHS (N = 2,243), baseline years 1991–1995ARIC whites (N = 9,001), baseline years 1990–1992ARIC blacks (N = 2,293), baseline years 1990–1992
No incident T2DIncident T2DPNo incident T2DIncident T2DPNo incident T2DIncident T2DP
N (%)1,973 (88.0)270 (12.0)6,719 (74.6)2,282 (25.4)1,530 (66.7)763 (33.3)
Age (years), mean (SD)54.3 (10)55.4 (9.4)57.3 (5.7)56.4 (5.4)*56.2 (5.9)55.1 (5.5)*
Female (%)56.247.8*55.051.7*62.664.4
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)26.7 (4.5)30.4 (5.0)*26.3 (4.4)28.7 (5.0)*28.5 (5.9)30.7 (6.1)*
SBP (mmHg), mean (SD)123.5 (18)133.5 (18.6)*117.8 (17.3)121.0 (17.2)*125.8 (20.9)126.1 (20.3)
HDL (mg/dL), mean (SD)52.2 (15.2)42.6 (12.9)*51.1 (16.8)45.4 (15.0)*56.3 (17.7)52.5 (16.3)*
Fasting TG (mg/dL), mean (SD)132.4 (82.6)190.2 (105.5)*125.8 (67.5)156.9 (96.1)*97.1 (48.5)116.8 (91.3)*
FG (mg/dL), mean (SD)93.6 (8.7)104.6 (9.6)*99.6 (8.5)105.4 (9.7)*101.0 (9.1)106.5 (9.9)*
HbA1c (%), mean (SD)5.2 (0.5)5.5 (0.5)*5.3 (0.3)5.5 (0.4)*5.5 (0.4)5.7 (0.4)*
Family history of diabetes (%)15.326.7*18.628.9*21.626.9*
Follow-up time (years), median/mean (SD)18.2/15.3 (5.3)6.5/9.1 (5.9)*21.0/18.3 (5.1)13.1/12.7 (5.7)*21.1/17.5 (5.9)12.1/12.3 (5.5)*
  • We excluded from this analysis individuals who, in baseline examinations, self-reported a physician diagnosis of T2D or use of antidiabetes medications or had FG ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) at baseline. To convert FG to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555; to convert cholesterol to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0259; and to convert TG to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0113. Race was self-reported; BMI is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Follow-up time was calculated from the baseline examination to the first diagnosis of incident T2D at either an examination visit or in a telephone survey, death, last appearance at an examination visit, or the last examination visit.

  • *P < 0.05 for t tests and χ2 tests, which test for differences in baseline characteristics between those who developed T2D and those who did not in FHS, ARIC whites, and ARIC blacks.