Table 2

Crude incidence rates and adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident cardiovascular events and mortality by severe hypoglycemia

Events/NCrude incidence rate per 100 PYModel 1*Model 2*Model 3*
Without hypoglycemiaAfter hypoglycemia
Incident cardiovascular events
 Coronary heart disease173/9921.24 (1.05–1.46)3.87 (2.65–5.64)2.78 (1.81–4.38)2.23 (1.23–3.52)2.02 (1.27–3.20)
 Stroke120/1,1630.81 (0.67–0.98)1.17 (0.63–2.17)1.15 (0.59–2.23)0.91 (0.46–1.81)0.81 (0.40–1.63)
 Heart failure300/1,1901.82 (1.61–2.06)6.61 (5.04–8.67)2.35 (1.72–3.20)1.37 (0.98–1.91)1.35 (0.96–1.89)
 Atrial fibrillation254/1,1621.70 (1.49–1.94)3.36 (2.32–4.87)1.55 (1.03–2.32)1.13 (0.74–1.73)1.05 (0.68–1.60)
 Peripheral artery disease89/1,1280.53 (0.42–0.67)2.07 (1.30–3.29)3.35 (1.94–5.78)1.85 (1.04–3.30)1.55 (0.86–2.80)
Mortality
 All-cause 586/1,2093.20 (2.92–3.50)11.43 (9.54–13.68)2.56 (2.08–3.17)1.86 (1.49–2.33)1.73 (1.38–2.17)
 Cardiovascular**218/1,2091.15 (0.99–1.34)4.74 (3.59–6.28)2.80 (2.00–3.91)1.76 (1.23–2.51)1.64 (1.15–2.34)
 Cancer**121/1,2090.68 (0.56–0.83)2.03 (1.33–3.12)2.44 (1.49–3.99)2.61 (1.55–4.38)2.49 (1.46–4.24)
 Other**218/1,2091.21 (1.04–1.40)3.97 (2.92–5.39)2.31 (1.62–3.30)1.47 (1.01–2.15)1.40 (0.95–2.03)
  • Severe hypoglycemia was modeled as a time-dependent exposure. PY, person-years.

  • *Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and race-center. Model 2 additionally included diabetes medications, fructosamine tertiles, duration of diabetes, low eGFR, albuminuria, income, and any difficulty with activities of daily living. Model 3 additionally included systolic blood pressure, hypertension medication use, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering medication use, and smoking status.

  • **Cause of death was missing for 29 individuals, and they were censored at the time of death in the analyses of cause-specific death.