Table 1

Baseline characteristics (N = 3,385)

Diabetes
No diabetesMicrovascular complications
Characteristic(n = 2,294)No (n = 739)Yes (n = 352)P value*P value
Age, years69 ± 1068 ± 9.167 ± 8.60.00890.026
Male 1,084 (47)354 (48)205 (58)<0.0010.0014
White 2,114 (92)611 (83)284 (81)<0.0010.42
Current smoker 272 (12)58 (8)29 (8)0.00270.82
Coronary heart disease 715 (31)329 (45)169 (48)<0.0010.28
Stroke 157 (7)65 (9)39 (11)0.00980.23
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg129 ± 13131 ± 15129 ± 150.00670.044
BMI, kg/m230 ± 6.235 ± 7.837 ± 7.3<0.001<0.001
Serum creatinine, mg/dL1.05 ± 0.271.12 ± 0.321.26 ± 0.37<0.001<0.001
Glomerular filtration rate, mL/min/1.73 m269 ± 2067 ± 2160 ± 19<0.001<0.001
New York Heart Association class III–IV668 (29)287 (39)163 (46)<0.0010.019
Prior heart failure hospitalization 1,647 (72)529 (72)273 (78)0.0690.037
Aspirin use1,463 (64)499 (68)256 (73)0.00190.082
β-Blockers 1,765 (77)573 (78)298 (85)0.00500.0061
ACE inhibitors/ARBs 1,898 (83)650 (88)304 (86)0.00170.46
Statin 1,012 (44)488 (66)268 (76)<0.001<0.001
Insulin 215 (29)203 (58)<0.001
Oral diabetes medications488 (66)215 (61)0.11
Diabetes duration, years9.3 ± 8.814.2 ± 10<0.001
Log(urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio), mg/g3.4 ± 1.63.8 ± 1.94.1 ± 1.9<0.0010.028
Hemoglobin, g/dL13.5 ± 1.713.0 ± 1.712.7 ± 1.6<0.0010.0023
Spironolactone 1,141 (50)378 (51)178 (51)0.790.86
Russia/Georgia 1,340 (58)244 (33)84 (24)<0.0010.0021
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or as n (%).

  • ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers.

  • *P value reflects comparison between all groups using the χ2 method for categorical variables and the ANOVA test for continuous variables.

  • P value reflects comparison between those with diabetes with and without microvascular complications using the χ2 method for categorical variables and the Student t test for continuous variables.