Table 1

Baseline and 60-month follow-up characteristics between RAMP-DM participants and matched usual care patients

FactorBaseline60-Month follow-upP value
RAMP-DM participants (N = 26,718)Usual care patients (N = 26,718)RAMP-DM participants (N = 26,718)Usual care patients (N = 26,718)
Sociodemographic
 Sex0.495
  Female53.08 (14,181)53.44 (14,279)53.08 (14,181)53.44 (14,279)
  Male46.92 (12,537)46.56 (12,439)46.92 (12,537)46.56 (12,439)
 Age, years67.76 ± 11.73 (26,718)67.79 ± 13.64 (26,718)72.76 ± 11.73 (26,718)72.79 ± 13.64 (26,718)0.523
 Smoking status0.144
  Nonsmoker89.06 (23,794)89.28 (23,855)91.33 (24,402)90.97 (24,306)
  Smoker10.94 (2,924)10.72 (2,863)8.67 (2,316)9.03 (2,412)
Laboratory results
 HbA1c, %7.36 ± 1.39 (26,718)7.37 ± 1.60 (26,718)7.06 ± 1.17 (26,718)7.20 ± 1.49 (26,718)<0.001*
 HbA1c, mmol/mol57 ± 15.2 (26,718)57 ± 17.5 (26,718)54 ± 12.8 (26,718)55 ± 16.3 (26,718)<0.001*
 SBP, mmHg136.52 ± 17.79 (26,718)136.43 ± 19.21 (26,718)130.08 ± 16.18 (26,718)133.77 ± 19.36 (26,718)<0.001*
 DBP, mmHg74.69 ± 10.57 (26,718)74.68 ± 11.18 (26,718)70.45 ± 10.53 (26,718)72.23 ± 11.48 (26,718)<0.001*
 LDL-C, mmol/L3.09 ± 0.83 (26,718)3.09 ± 1.05 (26,718)2.32 ± 0.71 (26,718)2.57 ± 0.88 (26,718)<0.001*
 BMI, kg/m225.27 ± 3.75 (26,718)25.28 ± 4.51 (26,718)24.92 ± 3.88 (26,718)25.00 ± 4.34 (26,718)0.004*
 TC/HDL-C ratio4.34 ± 1.29 (26,718)4.34 ± 1.51 (26,718)3.56 ± 1.29 (26,718)3.79 ± 1.37 (26,718)<0.001*
 Triglyceride, mmol/L1.62 ± 1.08 (26,718)1.62 ± 1.41 (26,718)1.42 ± 0.89 (26,718)1.47 ± 1.03 (26,718)<0.001*
 eGFR<0.001*
  ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m291.83 (24,535)91.60 (24,474)85.03 (22,718)78.26 (20,909)
  <60 mL/min/1.73 m28.17 (2,183)8.40 (2,244)14.97 (4,000)21.74 (5,809)
Clinical characteristics
 Duration of T2DM, years7.78 ± 7.15 (26,718)7.81 ± 7.25 (26,718)12.78 ± 7.15 (26,718)12.81 ± 7.25 (26,718)0.424
 Hypertension70.15 (18,744)70.19 (18,754)81.78 (21,850)78.02 (20,845)<0.001*
 Use of insulin2.19 (584)2.15 (574)16.43 (4,391)24.14 (6,450)<0.001*
 Use of oral-diabetic drugs79.15 (21,147)79.77 (21,313)90.16 (24,088)86.01 (22,981)<0.001*
 Use of antihypertensive drugs72.65 (19,410)72.54 (19,382)87.32 (23,329)85.79 (22,921)<0.001*
 Use of lipid-lowering agents10.41 (2,782)10.21 (2,728)66.76 (17,838)52.31 (13,977)<0.001*
 Charlson index4.16 ± 1.10 (26,718)4.17 ± 1.27 (26,718)4.59 ± 1.61 (26,718)4.98 ± 2.02 (26,718)<0.001*
  • Data are % (n) or mean ± SD (n).

  • T2DM, type 2 DM.

  • *Significant difference at 0.05 level by χ2 test or independent t test, as appropriate.

  • P value comparing the change (baseline − 60-month follow-up) between RAMP-DM participants and usual care patient.