Table 1

Patient characteristics at the time of first ADD initiation, by drug class in the study cohort (N = 1,023,340)

GLP-1RASGLT2iMETINSTZDDPP-4iSUOther§All
Any time during follow-up
n (% of N)68,522 (7)39,549 (4)808,518 (79)270,432 (26)109,754 (11)182,457 (18)354,367 (35)25,358 (2)1,023,340 (100)
 Time to first prescription, months*22.32 (27.23)39.64 (33.48)5.3 (14.16)13.03 (22.54)8.93 (17.72)19.57 (25.56)11.09 (20.25)14.97 (23.56)
At first ADD
n2 (% of N)9,494 (1)1,935 (0.2)740,478 (72)93,078 (9)28,004 (3)25,005 (2)116,435 (11)8,911 (1)
 Time to first prescription, months*3.82 (11.92)7.94 (18.68)3.73 (11.78)3.74 (11.06)2.33 (8.2)4.98 (13.65)3.84 (11.51)2.45 (9.66)3.73 (11.66)
 Follow-up from ADD initiation, years*3.22 (2.5)0.98 (0.62)3.31 (2.54)2.94 (2.45)5.06 (3.02)2.79 (2.1)3.72 (2.7)3.86 (2.71)3.36 (2.58)
 Follow-up ≥1 year from first ADD initiation, n3 (% of n2)7,400 (78)889 (46)589,246 (80)68,385 (73)25,105 (90)19,278 (77)95,854 (82)7,669 (86)813,826 (80)
 Discontinuation within 1 year, n (% of n3)1,516 (20)225 (25)44,485 (8)3,359 (5)4,795 (19)3,243 (17)9,765 (10)1,367 (18)68,755 (8)
 Age (years)*55 (12)56 (11)57 (13)60 (13)62 (11)64 (11)64 (11)58 (16)58 (13)
 Age ≥70 years, n (% of n2)1,217 (13)223 (12)144,210 (19)26,790 (29)8,838 (32)9,741 (39)50,280 (43)2,925 (33)244,224 (24)
 Male, n (% of n2)3,205 (34)849 (44)332,206 (45)44,016 (47)14,075 (50)10,968 (44)59,208 (51)3,339 (37)467,866 (46)
 White Caucasian, n (% of n2)7,005 (74)1,430 (74)512,521 (69)58,396 (63)18,342 (65)17,082 (68)77,533 (67)5,812 (65)698,121 (68)
 Black, n (% of n2)899 (9)218 (11)83,767 (11)14,089 (15)2,795 (10)2,957 (12)13,988 (12)944 (11)119,657 (12)
 HbA1c, %*8 (1.6)8.1 (1.7)8.1 (1.8)8.9 (2.1)7.8 (1.6)7.7 (1.5)8 (1.6)7.8 (1.5)8.2 (1.8)
 HbA1c, mmol/mol646565746261646266
 HbA1c ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol), n (% of n2)831 (47)295 (51)108,114 (48)19,756 (71)2,249 (42)2,410 (40)15,109 (49)509 (45)149,273 (50)
 HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol), n (% of n2)609 (34)209 (36)82,914 (37)16,284 (59)1,565 (29)1,656 (28)10,900 (36)348 (31)114,485 (39)
 Weight, kg*107.6 (26.6)103.5 (24.8)98.2 (24.9)95.3 (25.3)96.7 (25.2)92.8 (24)93.6 (23.7)87.6 (24.6)97.3 (24.9)
 BMI, kg/m2*38.1 (8.5)36.2 (8)34.6 (7.9)33.6 (8.3)34 (7.9)33 (7.6)33.1 (7.6)31.5 (8)34.3 (7.9)
 Obese, n (% of n2)6,460 (85)1,281 (78)427,651 (70)43,030 (64)12,954 (66)12,106 (62)53,029 (62)3,476 (51)559,987 (68)
 SBP, mmHg*129 (15)129 (14)131 (15)131 (18)131 (16)130 (16)132 (17)126 (17)131 (16)
 SBP ≥140 mmHg, n (% of n2)1,538 (21)345 (22)153,062 (25)20,320 (29)5,400 (27)4,960 (25)26,435 (30)1,313 (19)213,373 (26)
 DBP, mmHg*78 (10)78 (9)78 (10)75 (11)75 (10)75 (10)75 (10)74 (10)77 (10)
 Heart rate, bpm*79 (11)79 (12)78 (12)78 (12)75 (12)76 (12)76 (12)76 (11)78 (12)
 LDL, mg/dL*103 (37)106 (39)106 (37)98 (40)100 (38)99 (37)98 (37)98 (37)104 (37)
 HDL, mg/dL*45 (13)45 (14)44 (13)44 (15)46 (14)45 (14)44 (14)48 (15)44 (13)
 Triglycerides, mg/dL140 (102, 187)144 (104, 195)143 (104, 193)133 (93, 184)131 (94, 182)141 (102, 188)142 (103, 192)123 (88, 174)142 (103, 192)
 CVD, n (% of n2)1,422 (15)331 (17)118,342 (16)25,051 (27)5,446 (19)6,182 (25)31,293 (27)1,815 (20)189,882 (19)
 CKD, n (% of n2)377 (4)47 (2)12,590 (2)10,329 (11)1,820 (6)2,371 (9)10,988 (9)643 (7)39,165 (4)
 Cancer, n (% of n2)289 (3)64 (3)30,195 (4)3,636 (4)1,374 (5)1,340 (5)6,551 (6)451 (5)43,900 (4)
 Depression, n (% of n2)1,266 (13)213 (11)88,673 (12)7,834 (8)2,210 (8)2,327 (9)8,931 (8)845 (9)112,299 (11)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index*1.47 (0.9)1.45 (0.91)1.44 (0.89)1.84 (1.31)1.57 (1.06)1.76 (1.22)1.77 (1.23)1.66 (1.16)1.53 (1.0)
  • bpm, beats per minute; n2, number of study cohort patients prescribed each drug class as a first ADD; n3, number of n2 patients with ≥1 year follow-up after first ADD initiation.

  • *Mean (SD);

  • †median (interquartile range);

  • ‡mean;

  • §other: amylin, DOPRA, AGI, or MEG.