Table 2

Interventional studies that lowered levels of nonpersistent and persistent diabetogenic EDCs in humans

ReferencePopulationIntervention and assessmentResults
Nonpersistent pollutants
 Harley et al., 2016 (83)100 Latina adolescents from the Health and Environmental Research on Makeup of Salinas Adolescents studyMean percent change (95% CI) in urinary concentrations after 3-day intervention with personal care products devoid of chemicals under studyMEP: −27.4% (−39.3 to −13.2)*; Methylparaben: −43.9% (−61.3 to −18.8)*; Propylparaben: −45.4% (−63.7 to −17.9)*; Triclosan: −35.7% (−53.3 to −11.6)*; Benzophenone-3: −36.0% (−51.0 to −16.4)*
 Rudel et al., 2011 (84)10 children and 10 adults from the San Francisco Bay Area, CaliforniaMean urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalates before and during 3-day dietary intervention with fresh and organic foods that were not canned or packaged in plasticBPA: 3.7 vs. 1.2 ng/mL; −66%*; MEHP: 7.1 vs. 3.4 ng/mL; −53%*; MEOHP: 27 vs. 12 ng/mL; −55%*; MEHHP: 57 vs. 25 ng/mL; −56%*
 Chen et al., 2015 (85)30 Taiwanese girls with previously recorded high urinary phthalate metabolite concentrationsMean urinary concentrations (μg/g) of creatinine (95% CI) of eight phthalate metabolites before and after 1 week of seven different interventions: hand washing, not using plastic containers, not eating food wrapped in plastic, not microwaving food, not taking nutritional supplements, reducing the use of cosmetics, and reducing the use of personal care products (results are for those who were compliant with the intervention)MMP: 10.4 (3.49–29.7) vs. 4.54 (2.97–17.3)*; MEP: 58.6 (9.08–650) vs. 16.4 (4.66–200)*; MBP: 123 (57.9–482) vs. 84.7 (36.3–236)*; MBzP: 8.52 (1.87–58.2) vs. 4.67 (1.25–17.8)*; MEHP: 14.4 (4.34–38.3) vs. 6.95 (3.42–24.7)*; MEOHP: 55.2 (21.2–207) vs. 26.9 (15.5–85.6)*; MEHHP: 115 (40.3–398) vs. 61.2 (29.1–202)*; MECPP: 124 (34.7–320) vs. 52.9 (30.1–161)*; ΣDEHP: 0.98 (0.36–3.21) vs. 0.49 (0.27–1.57)*
 Sathyanarayana et al., 2013 (86)21 individuals from Seattle, Washington, with high potential for BPA and phthalate exposuresGeometric mean urinary DEHP concentrations (nmol/g creatinine) (95% CI) before and at completion of 5-day intervention with complete dietary replacement with fresh and organic foods prepared without plasticsDEHP: 283.7 (154.6–520.8) vs. 7,027.5 (4,428.1–11,152.68)*
POPs
 Geusau et al., 1999 (87)2 female patients with chloracneFecal excretion of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin before and after a 38-day intervention of dietary supplementation with olestra chips by using five different dosing regimens (15–66 g olestra daily)Patient 1: 134 vs. 1,350 ng/day; Patient 2: 29 vs. 240 ng/day
 Jandacek et al., 2014 (88)23 participants from Anniston, Alabama, with PCB levels above the national 50th percentileElimination rate (ng/g lipid/year; mean ± SEM) of 37 serum PCBs before and after a 1-year double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 15 g/day dietary olestra vs. placebo (vegetable oil)Olestra: −0.00864 ± 0.0116 vs. −0.0829 ± 0.0357/year*; Placebo: −0.0283 ± 0.0096 vs. −0.0413 ± 0.0408/year
 Redgrave et al., 2005 (89)1 obese male patient with diabetesAdipose levels of the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 before and after 2 years of dietary supplementation with olestra (16 g/day)Aroclor 1254: 3,200 vs. 56 mg/kg; Body weight: 101 vs. 83 kg; BMI: 33.0 vs. 27.1 kg/m2; Cholesterol: 8.6 vs. 3.7 mmol/L; Triglycerides : 11.8 vs. 1.4 mmol/L; Blood glucose: 17 vs. 5.3 mmol/L
 Arguin et al., 2010 (90)37 obese men undergoing weight loss trialPlasma concentrations (μg/L) of the OC pesticide β-HCH (mean ± SD) before and after a 3-month weight loss intervention; subjects randomized to standard treatment (n = 13), fat-reduced diet (n = 14), and olestra-substituted diet (33% of dietary fat) (n = 10)Standard treatment: 0.009 ± 0.019; Fat-reduced group: 0.015 ± 0.035; Olestra group: −0.009 ± 0.034*
 Guo et al., 2016 (92)15 healthy women from the San Francisco Bay Area, CaliforniaBlood levels of five PCBs and two OC pesticides (ng/g lipid) (mean ± SEM) before and after 2 months of supplementation with 1,000 mg/day ascorbic acid (vitamin C)PCB 74: 4.04 ± 0.57 vs. 4.00 ± 0.62*; PCB 118: 6.87 ± 0.97 vs. 6.79 ± 1.01*; PCB 138: 10.85 ± 1.66 vs. 10.52 ± 1.65*; PCB 153: 21.16 ± 4.16 vs. 20.68 ± 4.01*; PCB 180: 20.47 ± 4.99 vs. 20.07 ± 4.85*; 4,4′-DDT: 8.31 ± 0.96 vs. 8.18 ± 1.11*; 4,4′-DDE: 344.06 ± 58.40 vs. 338.77 ± 57.65*
  • β-HCH, β-hexachlorocyclohexane; MBP, monobutyl phthalate; MBzP, monobenzyl phthalate; MECPP, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate; MEHHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydoxyhexyl phthalate; MEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate; MEOHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; MMP, monomethyl phthalate.

  • *P < 0.05.