Table 1

Participant demographic and clinical levels taken at each measurement time point

CharacteristicDCCT baseline (n = 1,346)DCCT closeout (n = 1,354)EDIC years 4–6 (n = 816)EDIC years 8–11 (n = 830)P value
Age (years)27.0 (7.1)33.2 (7.1)39.4 (6.9)43.6 (6.9)
Male sex52.9 (712)52.7 (714)56.1 (455)55.4 (456)
Intensive treatment 49.9 (671)49.5 (670)51.7 (419)51.0 (420)
Primary prevention cohort50.9 (685)50.5 (683)51.8 (420)51.4 (423)
Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)5.6 (4.1)12.0 (4.9)17.5 (4.8)21.8 (4.9)
Study duration (years)6.4 (1.8)12.1 (2.0)16.3 (2.1)
Current HbA1c (%)9.0 (1.6)8.3 (1.6)8.1 (1.3)7.9 (1.3)<0.001
Current HbA1c (mmol/mol)75 (17.5)67 (17.5)65 (14.2)63 (14.2)<0.001
Study-weighted mean HbA1c (%)9.0 (1.6)8.2 (1.5)8.1 (1.1)8.1 (1.1)<0.001
AER (mg/24 h)*11.3 (2.2)11.6 (3.1)13.6 (3.8)15.1 (3.6)<0.001
eGFR*125 (1.1)116 (1.1)107 (1.2)101 (1.2)<0.001
Serum creatinine0.7 (0.1)0.7 (0.2)0.8 (0.2)0.8 (0.2)<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)110 (29)113 (29)114 (31)109 (28)0.047
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)51 (12)51 (13)56 (15)55 (15)<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)*73 (1.5)74 (1.6)75 (1.7)77 (1.7)0.002
SBP (mmHg)115 (11)116 (12)120 (14)121 (14)<0.001
MBP (mmHg)87 (8)88 (9)90 (10)90 (10)<0.001
ACE/ARB taken to date0.0 (0)0.1 (1)19.2 (156)39.6 (326)<0.001
Smoker (current)18.7 (251)20.1 (272)16.7 (135)14.3 (118)0.005
  • Data are mean (SD) or % (n). P values shown are for trends over time by using methods of maximum likelihood through mixed-effects regression models. MBP, mean blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • *Presented as geometric means.