Table 2

Univariate associations of clinical and demographic characteristics as well as biomarkers with each study outcome between available biomarker measurements

Events
CKD (n = 74)MA (n = 143)
CharacteristicHR (95% CI)χ2P valueHR (95% CI)χ2P value
Age (years)1.07 (1.04–1.10)16.8<0.0010.99 (0.97–1.01)1.10.286
Male sex*1.22 (0.77–1.93)0.70.3962.11 (1.48–3.01)16.8<0.001
Intensive treatment*0.48 (0.30–0.77)9.00.0030.36 (0.25–0.52)30.2<0.001
Primary prevention cohort*0.99 (0.63–1.56)0.00.9621.68 (1.20–2.36)9.10.003
Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)1.06 (1.03–1.09)15.6<0.0011.04 (1.01–1.07)8.80.003
Study duration (years)1.16 (1.11–1.22)39.7<0.0011.04 (0.99–1.08)2.70.097
BMI1.04 (0.99–1.08)2.70.1021.01 (0.97–1.05)0.20.639
Current HbA1c (%)1.55 (1.38–1.75)52.9<0.0011.73 (1.60–1.87)184.0<0.001
Study-weighted mean HbA1c (%)2.00 (1.74–2.29)98.4<0.0011.84 (1.68–2.01)177.2<0.001
AER (50 mg/24 h)1.04 (1.03–1.04)82.9<0.0011.73 (1.44–2.08)34.8<0.001
eGFR (10-unit decrease)2.20 (1.91–2.54)116.5<0.0011.16 (1.01–1.34)4.40.036
Cholesterol (10 mg/dL)1.20 (1.14–1.26)54.4<0.0011.08 (1.03–1.13)10.10.002
LDL cholesterol (10 mg/dL)1.18 (1.08–1.28)15.2<0.0011.05 (1.00–1.11)3.70.055
HDL cholesterol (10 mg/dL)0.94 (0.80–1.11)0.50.4950.85 (0.74–0.98)5.10.024
Triglycerides (10 mg/dL)1.06 (1.05–1.07)110.6<0.0011.05 (1.04–1.06)146.7<0.001
SBP (10 mmHg)1.98 (1.68–2.33)67.8<0.0011.25 (1.10–1.42)11.3<0.001
DBP (10 mmHg)2.41 (1.73–3.36)26.7<0.0011.57 (1.29–1.91)19.8<0.001
Any ACE/ARB taken to date5.39 (3.23–9.00)41.5<0.0012.65 (1.56–4.50)13.0<0.001
Current smoker1.33 (0.77–2.32)1.00.3081.72 (1.19–2.49)8.40.004
  • A total of 4,378 measurements were taken in 1,396 participants, with a median time between measurements of 6.1 years. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • *Time invariant characteristics; all other characteristics are measured at time points corresponding to each biomarker measurement.