Table 3

Multivariable Cox proportional regressions/negative binomial regressions on the dependent variables of cardiovascular and microvascular complications, all-cause mortality, and service uses adjusted for baseline characteristics

Initial episode of event during the periodHR95% CIP value
Any CV or microvascular complications0.594(0.572, 0.617)<0.001*
 CVD0.434(0.414, 0.455)<0.001*
 CHD0.383(0.358, 0.410)<0.001*
 Heart failure0.401(0.368, 0.436)<0.001*
 Stroke0.533(0.495, 0.574)<0.001*
Any microvascular complications0.881(0.834, 0.930)<0.001*
 Retinopathy1.256(1.144, 1.379)<0.001*
 Nephropathy0.742(0.696, 0.791)<0.001*
 Neuropathy0.391(0.314, 0.488)<0.001*
 ESRD0.384(0.311, 0.474)<0.001*
 STDR0.412(0.334, 0.509)<0.001*
All-cause mortality0.339(0.321, 0.357)<0.001*
Frequency of episode event during the periodIRR95% CIP value
Hospitalization§0.415(0.403, 0.428)<0.001*
A&E attendance0.588(0.575, 0.602)<0.001*
SOPC attendance0.650(0.636, 0.664)<0.001*
GOPC attendance1.326(1.311, 1.340)<0.001*
  • CV, cardiovascular.

  • *P value < 0.05.

  • †All HRs were obtained by Cox proportional hazards regressions with the adjustment of sex, age, smoking status, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, BMI, TC to HDL-C ratio, triglyceride, eGFR, duration of DM, diagnosed hypertension, use of insulin, oral-diabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents, and Charlson index.

  • ‡All IRRs were obtained by negative binomial regressions with the adjustment of sex, age, smoking status, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, BMI, TC to HDL-C ratio, triglyceride, eGFR, duration of DM, diagnosed hypertension, use of insulin, oral-diabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents, Charlson index, and the corresponding frequency of episode event within 1 year before baseline.

  • §Stayed at least one overnight in the hospital after admission.