Table 2

Multivariable models for the outcomes HbA1c (linear regression), QOL (ordinal logistic regression), CAD, and pump use (logistic regressions)

PredictorsModel outcome
HbA1c (n = 788)QOL (low to high) (n = 866)CAD (n = 761)Pump (n = 878)
Adjusted βP valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Nationality (reference = American)0.280.00030.71 (0.53, 0.95)0.020.46 (0.31, 0.68)<0.00010.71 (0.52, 0.97)0.030
Age0.00280.561.00 (0.99, 1.02)0.651.05 (1.02, 1.08)0.00010.95 (0.93, 0.96)<0.0001
Sex (reference = male)0.47<0.00010.94 (0.71, 1.25)0.670.64 (0.44, 0.93)0.021.57 (1.16, 2.13)0.0033
Insulin pump−0.150.0301.21 (0.92, 1.6)0.17
Exercise1.8 (1.30, 2.49)0.00040.79 (0.52, 1.20)0.281.34 (0.94, 1.90)0.11
Annual physician visits, n (reference <1)
 1−0.080.77
 2−0.270.27
 >2−0.220.36
HbA1c0.76 (0.65, 0.87)0.00011.23 (1.03, 1.47)0.0240.79 (0.68, 0.93)0.0041
eGFR0.00420.0290.98 (0.97, 0.99)0.0004
BMI0.0140.0680.99 (0.95, 1.03)0.53
CAD0.200.00880.89 (0.66, 1.20)0.440.90 (0.66, 1.24)0.52
PAD0.150.240.59 (0.36, 0.95)0.0295.22 (2.71, 10.07)<0.00010.52 (0.30, 0.89)0.018
Nephropathy (self-report)0.230.0550.63 (0.41, 0.98)0.0501.32 (0.74, 2.36)0.351.65 (1.01, 2.69)0.045
Neuropathy (MNSI score ≥3)0.140.0440.69 (0.53, 0.91)0.00861.61 (1.20, 2.15)0.0015
Proliferative retinopathy (by examination)0.0660.340.75 (0.57, 0.98)0.0370.99 (0.73, 1.32)0.92
Lipid-lowering medication3.69 (2.34, 5.81)<0.0001
LDL0.86 (0.64, 1.15)0.30
RAAS inhibitor0.77 (0.50, 1.18)0.24
Smoking1.10 (0.78, 1.55)0.59
Hypertension1.41 (0.96, 2.06)0.08
Education (reference = no high school)
 High school0.280.220.63 (0.24, 1.64)0.352.94 (0.83, 10.40)0.0951.07 (0.37, 3.10)0.91
 Some university/college0.130.560.66 (0.26, 1.64)0.372.97 (0.88, 10.05)0.081.26 (0.45, 3.50)0.66
 University/college0.150.480.89 (0.36, 2.2)0.801.87 (0.56, 6.23)0.311.14 (0.41, 3.11)0.80
 Masters or doctoral0.110.621.27 (0.50, 3.20)0.611.85 (0.54, 6.33)0.331.54 (0.55, 4.30)0.41
 Health professional0.170.500.87 (0.31, 2.44)0.781.39 (0.36, 5.44)0.641.38 (0.44, 4.30)0.59