Table 2

Cumulative incidences of cardiovascular and microvascular complications and all-cause mortality and comparisons of service uses between RAMP-DM participants and usual care patients

EventRAMP-DM participants (N = 26,718)Usual care patients (N = 26,718)
Case patients with eventRateEstimate (cases/100 person-years)95% CI*Person-yearsCase patients with eventRateEstimate (cases/100 person-years)95% CI*Person-years
Any CV or microvascular complications5,09319.06%4.34(4.22, 4.46)117,3718,28631.01%7.73(7.57, 7.90)107,160
 CVD3,04211.39%2.47(2.38, 2.55)123,3726,31023.62%5.58(5.44, 5.72)113,161
 CHD1,4125.28%1.11(1.05, 1.17)126,9613,38212.66%2.79(2.70, 2.89)121,232
 Heart failure9103.41%0.71(0.67, 0.76)128,0032,1858.18%1.75(1.68, 1.83)124,694
 Stroke1,2714.76%1.00(0.95, 1.06)126,8322,3568.82%1.92(1.84, 1.99)123,006
Any microvascular complications2,73210.23%2.23(2.15, 2.31)122,5563,54113.25%2.95(2.85, 3.05)120,171
 Retinopathy1,0233.83%0.81(0.76, 0.86)126,3801,0914.08%0.87(0.82, 0.92)125,968
 Nephropathy1,8867.06%1.50(1.44, 1.57)125,4132,75510.31%2.24(2.16, 2.33)122,992
 Neuropathy1250.47%0.10(0.08, 0.12)129,2723231.21%0.25(0.22, 0.28)128,442
 ESRD1430.54%0.11(0.09, 0.13)129,3933641.36%0.28(0.25, 0.31)128,888
 STDR1380.52%0.11(0.09, 0.13)129,2314401.65%0.34(0.31, 0.38)128,048
All-cause mortality2,1798.16%1.68(1.61, 1.75)129,5936,56224.56%5.07(4.95, 5.20)129,353
Frequency of event during the periodMeanMedianRangeTotal number of eventsTotal person-yearsEvent rate (cases/100 person-years)MeanMedianRangeTotal number of eventsTotal person-yearsEvent rate (cases/100 person-years)
Hospitalization1.5700–7642,072129,50432.493.1110–9483,033129,04264.35
A&E attendance2.5410–11467,869129,50452.413.8820–135103,788129,04280.43
SOPC attendance10.2260–199272,977129,504210.7914.85100–148396,770129,042307.47
GOPC attendance22.15220–251591,775129,504456.9517.11130–727457,250129,042354.34
  • CV, cardiovascular.

  • *The 95% CI was constructed based on Poisson distribution.

  • †Stayed overnight in the hospital at least once after admission.