Table 1

Characteristics by nationality

CharacteristicAmerican (n = 668)Canadian (n = 361)P value
Age (years)**66.38 (7.66)65.78 (8.67)0.2729
Age at diagnosis (years)11.00 [6.00, 15.00]11.00 [6.00, 16.00]0.6963*
Duration of diabetes (years)53.00 [51.00, 57.00]53.00 [51.00, 58.00]0.5154*
Male sex318 (47.7)154 (42.8)0.13
BMI (m/kg2)25.68 [23.14, 28.44]25.08 [22.96, 28.34]0.4328*
 Missing78 (11.7)14 (3.9)
SBP (mmHg)**132.82 (17.47)128.21 (15.33)0.0006
 Missing83 (12.5)174 (48.2)
DBP (mmHg)**63.26 (8.77)66.95 (8.84)<0.0001
 Missing83 (12.9)176 (48.8)
Hypertension375 (58)214 (60.6)0.41
 Missing19 (2.9)8 (2.2)
Insulin dose (units/kg)0.43 [0.34, 0.53]0.46 [0.37, 0.59]0.0009*
 Missing82 (12.3)54 (15)
Smoker (ever)295 (48.6)192 (53.8)0.12
 Missing59 (8.9)4 (1.1)
Currently physically active509 (79)257 (72)0.012
 Missing22 (3.3)4 (1.1)
No. annual physician visits<0.0001
 <18 (1.2)15 (4.2)
 129 (4.5)43 (12)
 2117 (18)128 (35.7)
 >2496 (76.3)173 (48.2)
 Missing16 (2.4)2 (0.55)
Highest education<0.0001
 No high school2 (0.3)22 (6.2)
 High school51 (7.9)66 (18.5)
 Some college/university141 (21.8)78 (21.8)
 College/university degree202 (31.2)132 (37)
 Masters or doctoral degree191 (29.5)53 (14.8)
 Health professional60 (9.3)6 (1.7)
 Missing19 (2.9)4 (1.1)
QOL0.0002
 Poor8 (1.25)11 (3.1)
 Normal55 (8.6)52 (14.5)
 Good264 (41.4)163 (45.5)
 Excellent311 (48.7)132 (36.9)
 Missing28 (4.2)3 (0.83)
Laboratory values
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)**4.17 (0.88)4.13 (0.94)0.5046
 HDL (mmol/L)**1.65 (0.51)1.73 (0.53)0.0239
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.76 [0.57, 1.05]0.80 [0.61, 1.07]0.073*
 LDL (mmol/L)**2.11 (0.63)1.99 (0.71)0.0121
Missing2 (0.3)58 (16.1)
Renal outcomes
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)**67.40 (19.97)68.04 (22.51)0.655
  Missing3 (0.45)21 (5.8)
 ACR (mg/mmol)1.36 [0.80, 3.66]1.19 [0.52, 3.82]0.0176*
  Missing132 (19.8)85 (23.5)
 Most recent HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)**7.22 (0.98), 557.53 (1.03), 59<0.0001
Missing012 (3.3)
Medications
 Insulin pump365 (55.6)155 (43.3)0.0002
  Missing9 (1.4)3 (0.83)
 RAAS inhibitor458 (69.9)258 (71.9)0.52
  Missing13 (1.9)2 (0.6)
 Lipid-lowering medication446 (68.5)263 (73.3)0.11
  Missing15 (2.3)2 (0.6)
  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure. Data are presented as mean (SD) (indicated by **), median [IQR], or frequency (% of available data).

  • *For continuous variables, indicates use of Wilcoxon rank sum test; Student’s t test used otherwise. For categorical variables, χ2 test used.

  • †One person missing.

  • ‡None missing for Americans; missing for Canadians: 54 (15%) for total cholesterol, 55 (15.2%) for triglycerides, 53 (14.7%) for HDL.