Table 2

Risk of pancreatic cancer associated with incretin use

BelgiumLombardy RegionBelgium and Lombardy Region combined
Exposure groupNIADIncretinNIADIncretinNIADIncretin
All subjects
 Pancreatic cancer (n)83055759301,58985
 PYs978,70841,645458,17212,8481,436,88054,493
 IR* (crude)84.8132.1165.7233.5110.6156.0
 IR* (standardized to the EU population)45.583.776.5126.655.494.4
 HR (95% CI)1.002.32 (1.76–3.07)1.001.85 (1.28–2.67)1.002.14 (1.71–2.67)
 HR (95% CI)1.002.55 (1.92–3.37)1.002.44 (1.69–3.52)1.002.51 (2.01–3.14)
 HR§ (95% CI)1.002.12 (1.60–2.81)1.002.17 (1.50–3.13)1.002.14 (1.71–2.67)
Lagged exposure of 6 months
 Pancreatic cancer (n)469504281789767
 PYs774,49931,052369,2288,2251,143,72739,277
 IR* (standardized to the EU population)33.71103.7954.69113.8940.60106.09
 HR (95% CI)1.002.01 (1.39–2.90)1.001.36 (0.75–2.49)1.001.81 (1.32–2.47)
 HR (95% CI)1.002.20 (1.52–3.19)1.001.85 (1.02–3.38)1.002.10 (1.53–2.87)
 HR§ (95% CI)1.001.74 (1.20–2.52)1.001.59 (0.87–2.91)1.001.69 (1.24–2.32)
  • EU, European; IR, incidence rate.

  • *Per 100,000 PY.

  • †Crude.

  • ‡Stratified by age and sex.

  • §Stratified by age and sex and adjusted for use of insulin as a time-dependent variable.

  • ‖Reference category.

  • ¶Summary HR calculated by fixed-effects meta-analysis.