Table 1

Characteristics of study subjects (n = 810)

Age at T1D diagnosis
 Median (range), years13.6 (3.3–58.6)
 <18 years584 (72)
 ≥18 years226 (28)
Sex
 Female363 (45)
 Male444 (55)
 Not reported (n)3
Race
 Nonwhite56 (7)
 White744 (93)
 Missing/unknown (n)10
Ethnicity
 Hispanic or Latino76 (9.5)
 Not Hispanic or Latino724 (90.5)
 Missing/unknown (n)10
BMI z-score at diagnosis
 Median (range)0.49 (−2.8 to 3.1)
 Normal/underweight644 (81.1)
 Overweight/obese150 (18.9)
 Missing (n)16
Positive islet autoantibodies at diagnosis (n)
 1119 (14.7)
 2192 (23.7)
 3276 (34.1)
 4202 (24.9)
 521 (2.6)
 Single119 (14.7)
 Multiple (≥2)691 (85.3)
HLA DR3/DR4-DQ8
 No648 (82.4)
 Yes138 (17.6)
 Missing (n)24
HLA DR3 and/or DR4-DQ8
 No200 (25.4)
 Yes586 (74.6)
 Missing (n)24
Fasting glucose
 Median (range), mmol/L5.89 (3–16.06)
 Missing (n)25
Mean AUC glucose
 Median (range), mmol/L9.29 (4.76–18.71)
 Missing (n)23
Fasting C-peptide
 Median (range), nmol/L0.36 (0.02–3.53)
 Missing (n)27
Mean AUC C-peptide
 Median (range), nmol/L0.69 (0.01–2.70)
 Missing (n)51
rs4506565_T: minor allele distribution
 0408 (50.4)
 1341 (42.1)
 261 (7.5)
 Carrier of minor allele402 (49.6)
 Homozygous for minor allele61 (7.5)
  • Data are presented as n (%) except where noted otherwise. T1D, type 1 diabetes.

  • †Note that DR3 was defined as HLA DRB1*0301, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201, and DR4-DQ8 was defined as HLA DRB1*0401, *0402, or *0405, DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302.