Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of study patients

CharacteristicsOSA(+) DM(+) (n = 271)OSA(+) DM(−) (n = 323)OSA(−) DM(+) (n = 284)OSA(−) DM(−) (n = 433)P value
Age (years)58.8 ± 10.059.2 ± 10.558.0 ± 9.657.2 ± 10.70.035
Male sex234 (86.4)289 (89.5)222 (78.2)372 (85.9)0.001
Ethnicity<0.001
 Chinese151 (55.7)225 (69.7)156 (54.9)265 (61.2)
 Malay54 (19.9)29 (9.0)44 (15.5)32 (7.4)
 Indian42 (15.5)51 (15.8)69 (24.3)102 (23.6)
 Other24 (8.9)18 (5.6)15 (5.3)34 (7.9)
BMI (kg/m2)27.2 ± 4.226.0 ± 3.525.5 ± 3.524.7 ± 3.3<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)98.0 ± 14.493.8 ± 11.892.8 ± 12.591.1 ± 11.6<0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Smoking95 (35.1)115 (35.6)88 (31.0)167 (38.5)0.228
 Hyperlipidemia191 (70.5)166 (51.4)198 (69.7)223 (51.5)<0.001
 Hypertension213 (78.6)191 (59.1)182 (64.1)205 (47.3)<0.001
 DM271 (100.0)0 (0.0)284 (100.0)0 (0.0)<0.001
  HbA1c (%)7.96 ± 1.807.69 ± 1.890.091
  Insulin dependent41 (15.1)32 (11.3)0.178
 Family history of premature CAD24 (8.9)15 (4.6)34 (12.0)34 (7.9)0.011
Concomitant conditions
 Previous myocardial infarction50 (18.5)61 (18.9)63 (22.2)80 (18.5)0.603
 Previous PCI56 (20.7)62 (19.2)64 (22.5)81 (18.7)0.617
 Previous CABG16 (5.9)12 (3.7)12 (4.2)12 (2.8)0.222
 Previous stroke/TIA18 (6.6)15 (4.6)24 (8.4)20 (4.6)0.121
 Chronic kidney disease24 (8.9)8 (2.5)19 (6.7)9 (2.1)<0.001
LVEF (%)52.4 ± 11.454.1 ± 10.053.2 ± 11.154.4 ± 9.90.226
  • Data are n (%) or mean ± SD. CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; TIA, transient ischemic attack.